AN ENGINEERING SCIENCE TECHNICAL REPORT (SIWES) FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

A TECHNICAL REPORT ON
STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE
SCHEME (SIWES)

HELD AT
MANT TECH NIGERIA LIMITED

BY
ARIWOOLA BASIT OLUWASEUN

MATRIC NO
2018702040056

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN
DECEMBER 2019 TO MARCH 2020

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this job was carried out by ARIWOOLA BASIT OLUWASEUN with matriculation number 2018702040056 of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfillment for the 2019/2020 SIWES.

________________ _____
ENGR. D.B OKE DATE
INSTITUTION SUPERVISOR

_______________ ________
ENGR. D.B OKE DATE
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

ABSTRACT

This SIWES report is written for the purpose of giving an account of work done during my 16 weeks of Industrial Attachment. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

All glory and adoration be to God Almighty, the author and finisher of our faith for the knowledge, skills, and inspiration He granted for the success of this report and for His provision and guidance throughout my SIWES program.
I cannot but appreciate the effort of my parents, Mr & Mrs Ariwoola for their support financially, spiritually and morally. Using this medium to acknowledge the effort of my industry based supervisor Mr. Alli olatunde for the success of my SIWES for his time well devoted to effect necessary correction to errors and to supervise until it has been complied.

DEDICATION

     This project is dedicated to Almighty God, for His provision and guidance throughout this program and my stay during my SIWES.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification
Abstract
Acknowledgements

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction to SIWES Program
1.1 Objectives of Siwes
1.2 History of Organization
1.3 Organization chart
Chapter Two
2.0 How to change oil & oil filter of a vehicle
2.1 Draining the oil and removing the oil filter
2.2 Putting in the new filter and adding oil
2.3 Types of Oil
Chapter Three
3.0 Cranking of Engine
3.1 Internal Combustion
3.2 Application
Chapter Four
4.0 Safety Precautions in a Mechanic Workshop
4.1General Machine Shop
4.2 Clothing and Safety Equipment
4.3 House Keeping
Chapter Five
5.0 Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion

CHAPTER ONE


1.0 INTRODUCTION TO SIWES PROGRAM
SIWES which stands for Student Industrial Working Scheme was established by ITF in 1973 to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills preparatory for employment in industries by Nigeria graduates of tertiary institution.

The Scheme exposes students to industry based skills necessary for a smooth transition from classroom to the world of work. It affords the students of tertiary institution the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and equipment which are not usually in educational institutions.
Participation in SIWES has become a necessary pre-condition for the award of Diploma and Degree certificates in specific disciplines in most institutions of higher learning in the country in accordance with the education policy of the government.
  1. 1.1 OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
    Specifically the objective of SIWES is as follows:
    Provides avenue for students to acquire industrial skill and experience in the approved course of study.
Prepare students for their industrial work situation which they are likely to meet after graduation.
Expose students to work method and techniques in handling equipment and machineries that may not be available in the institution.
To make the transition from the schooling to the world of work easier through enhancing students’ contact for later job placement.
Provide students with the opportunities to apply their educational knowledge in real work situations, thereby bridging the gap between theory and practices.

1.2 HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATION


Mant Tech Nigeria Limited was established in 1992 with 10 staff members. It is the most popular Company in Mushin, Lagos State. The workshop is known for integrity and professionalism.
1.3 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 HOW TO CHANGE OIL & OIL FILTER OF A VEHICLE
A vehicle’s oil filter keeps dirt and particles out of the oil so that it stays cleaner and lubricates your engine better. Be sure to change your oil filter every time you change your oil to keep your engine running smoothly. Once you locate the oil filter on your vehicle’s engine block, all you need is an oil pan, a new filter, and some oil to get the job done.
2.1 Draining the Oil and Removing the Old Filter
Loosen the oil fill cap to help the oil drain more easily 
The oil fill cap is a round cover at the top of the engine that covers the hole where you check your oil or pour oil into. Twist it counterclockwise to loosen it so that the oil can drain out quicker. Make sure your vehicle’s engine is off before performing this procedure. If the engine is hot, wait at least 30 minutes to start the procedure. If the engine is cold, let your car warm it up for 2-3 minutes, then shut it off before beginning.

Put an oil drain pan underneath the oil drain plug 
The drain plug is a square nut typically located beneath the engine block on the lowest possible point of the oil pan that is attached to the underside of the engine block. It is usually either on the bottom or the side of the oil pan. The drain plug is sometimes located near the crankshaft, which is the shaft connected directly to the underside of the engine block that supplies power to the moving parts of the vehicle. It is housed inside a casing that is attached to the underside of the engine block.

Remove the oil plug to drain the oil out, and then replace the plug
Use a square-end wrench (a socket wrench without the socket) to loosen and remove it. Let the oil drain out into the oil pan until it stops trickling out. This may take 10-30 minutes. Don’t forget to replace the oil drain plug! Be ready to move your hand away quickly as soon as you remove the plug so you don’t get covered in oil.


If your oil drain plug has a gasket, then replace it with a new one before you put the plug back in. This will ensure a tight fit and seal.


Find the oil filter by looking for a metal cylinder attached to the engine block
 Look on the top, bottom, and sides of the engine to locate the filter attached to an outlet coming from the engine block. The filter is often black, white, blue, or orange and labeled as a filter. The location of the oil filter depends on the model of vehicle. Check your vehicle’s manual if you aren’t sure where the oil filter is located.

Move the oil drain pan underneath the oil filter
This is necessary to catch any oil that drains out when you remove the filter. Make sure the pan is located directly below the oil filter. The amount of oil that will drain out when you remove the filter can range from a few drops to 1 liter (1/4 gallon)

Screw off the oil filter completely by hand
 Turn the oil filter counterclockwise until it comes off completely. Be prepared for oil to start leaking out when you take off the filter. It’s a good idea to put on some work gloves before you take off the oil filter to keep your hands oil-free. Make sure you screw off the filter in a position where the leaking oil won’t spill straight down your arm.


Since oil filters should only be tightened on by hand, many can be removed completely by hand. However, it’s possible for them to get stuck on if they were tightened too much or there isn’t enough lubrication.

Use a filter wrench to loosen the oil filter if you can’t loosen it by hand
 Try to loosen the filter by hand first, and then turn the oil filter counterclockwise with a filter wrench to loosen it if it is stuck on. You just need to get it started so you will be able to screw it off all the way by hand. A filter wrench is a ratchet-type wrench designed specifically to fit tightly around oil filters. You can get filter wrenches for your specific model of vehicle online or at an auto parts dealer. Place the wrench around the oil filter, and then ratchet it to tighten it and twist it counterclockwise to loosen the filter.

Put the old filter face down in the oil pan and let it drain for 24 hours. 
You need to let all of the old oil drain out before you can dispose of the old filter. Throw it away in your regular trash after 24 hours.

. Putting in the New Filter and Adding Oil

Lubricate the gasket on the new oil filter with fresh motor oil
 Dip your fingers into some new motor oil and rub enough on to cover the whole rubber ring around the base of the new oil filter. This will help it fit tightly and with no leaks to the engine block. Check the engine block before attaching the new filter to make sure that the gasket from the old filter didn’t stick to it when you removed it. Always refer to your vehicle’s owner’s manual for the recommended grade and amount of oil for your vehicle.

Screw on the filter by hand until you feel it make contact with the engine block
Spin the new oil filter on clockwise until you feel it stop turning easily. Only ever screw on a new oil filter by hand. Only apply gentle pressure when you start screwing on the new filter. If you apply too much pressure, you can end up cross-threading the filter and causing damage to the threads that can be expensive to fix. Wearing work gloves will give you some added grip to screw on the new filter.

Tighten the new filter 1/4 to 3/4 of a turn
Give the new filter another partial twist, no more than 3/4 of a twist, to finish tightening it. Only do this part by hand as well. If you notice the oil filter still leaking after you tighten it, then give it 1/4 of a turn more until it is leak-free.
Fill up the engine with fresh motor oil
Remove the oil fill cap and place a funnel into the hole. Refer to your owner’s manual to figure out what kind of oil to use and how much oil you need to add. Then, pour the recommended amount of oil into the funnel. Twist the oil fill cap back on when you’re done. Make sure to use the oil recommended in your owner’s manual. Most standard engines will not receive added benefits from putting in more expensive premium oils, whereas high-performance engines will not react well to lower-grade oils.

2.3 Types of Oil


Conventional Oil: This type of oil is the cheapest and most common. It is suitable for most vehicles if you follow the standard guidelines and change your oil every 3,000 mi (4,800 kmJ oil is the standard for most new vehicles. It is a step above conventional oil.

Full-Synthetic Oil: This oil is made for more high-performance engines. It has superior and longer-lasting performance. There is no need to use this oil unless your owner’s manual recommends it.

Synthetic-Blend Oil: This kind of oil is recommended for vehicles with engines that work harder, such as trucks and SUVs.

High-Mileage Oil: This is a special kind of oil developed for vehicles that have more than 75,000 mi (121,000 km) on their engines

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 CRANKING OF ENGINE


Engine cranking is a term used for the turning over, or energizing the engine by some exterior force, normally a starter, but in the old days is was a “crank” that was turned by hand. It comes from the “crankshaft” which is the part of the engine that spins with the pistons and drives them to start and then is driven by them once the engine starts.
This turning starts the engine through it’s cycle where the gasoline is injected and the spark is sent to the cylinder to start the engine.
Battery companies use an engine cranking test to show how strong their batteries are in certain conditions.
In engine diagnosis, when the car fails to start, the ability to turn over or crank determines where to look for the fault. If the starter cannot crank the engine, there is probably an electrical problem with it or the battery. A jump start with another battery can determine if it is the bad battery. A jump start by pushing a manual transmission car, or even cranking with a wrench on the pulley of the crankshaft can determine if there is a physical obstruction in the engine (locked up, rusted, timing chain failure, etc.). If it cranks, or spins, but does not start, the starting system is not at fault and the mechanic looks to fuel or electrical problems with the engine.
So in describing a problem, saying it doesn’t crank starts to tell us the problem. Cranks but does not start is a whole new ball game.
In order for an internal combusion engine to work (gasoline or diesel), it needs energy to manipulate the valves and pumps for the fuel system.

This is usually accomplished by a system of belts, pulleys, and gears that use part of the rotational energy produced by the engine to drive those support mechanisms.

This means that in order to start the engine, you need to provide rotational energy to the system in order that the support systems function well enough to supply the engine with fuel, etc. in order to run.

In the earliest engines, this was done by an external crank handle that a person would use to get the engine moving.   Later on, an electric motor and battery were used to start the engine moving (which also required an alternator/generator to produce electricity to recharge the battery.)

Some older (manual transmission) cars can be pushed to get the engine moving again if the starter (electric) motor system is failing.


Actually, the device used to hand-crank an engine, is just that, a crank. That it is engaged with the engine crankshaft to turn the engine over is a coincidence and has nothing to do with it’s name. A crankshaft is also configured with a crank or several cranks, known today as crank throws. They work just like a hand crank but are driven by a connecting rod pushed by a piston.
So the engine crankshaft still features cranks, even though long ago, Charles Kettering invented the first production electric starter for Cadillac. Of course the verb “cranking” doescome from the hand crank, but now the “starter” is doing the “cranking” and believe me, you don’t want to go back.


So driving became synonomous with controlling a wheeled vehicle and when he replaced the animals that he was driving to pull the cart, with an engine in the cart, he thought that he was still “driving”, but his grandpa knew otherwise.


3.1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION


An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.
The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto.


The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.[1][2] Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine.


Internal combustion engines are quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft, and boats.


Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.


3.2 APPLICATIONS


Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles,motorcycles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives (some are electrical but most use Diesel engines. Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles, aircraft and motorcycles.


Where very high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbinesor Wankel engines. Powered aircraft typically uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts; both of which are types of turbines. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles.
Reciprocating engine as found inside a car

providing electrical power to areas not connected ICEs drive some of the large electric generators that power electrical grids. They are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to boil and superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the combustion turbine alone. In combined cycle power plants efficiencies in the range of 50% to 60% are typical. In a smaller scale Diesel generators are used for backup power and for to an electric grid.

CHAPTER FOUR


4.0 Safety Precautions in a Mechanic Workshop
4.1 General Machine Shop
1: Be sure that all machines have effective and properly working guards that are always in place where machines are operating.
2: Replace guards immediately after any repair.
3: Don’t attempt to oil, clean, adjust or repair any machine while it is running, stop the machine and lock the power switch in the off position.
4: Even after the power is off, don’t leave the machine until it has stopped running. Someone else may notice that it is still in motion and be injured.
5: Don’t operate any machine unless authorized, to do so by the instructor or under his supervision.
6: Don’t try to stop the machine with your hand or body.
7: Always see that work and cutting tools on any machine are clamped securely before starting.
8: Keep the floor clean of metal chips or curls and waste pieces, put them in container provided for such things.
9: Don’t operate machinery when the instructor is not in the workshop.
10: When working with another worker only one should operate machine or switches.
11: Don’t rest against the machine.
12: Concentrate on the work and don’t talk unnecessary while operating machine.
13: Don’t talk to others when they are operating a machine.
14: Get first aid immediately for any injury.
15: Be sure you have sufficient light to see clearly check with the supervisor if you don’t enough.
4.2 Clothing and Safety Equipment
1: Always wear safety glasses, or face shields designed for the type of the work operating any machine
2: Wear safety shoes if heavy work is being done.
3: Wear clothing suited for the job, wear shoes with thick soles.
4: Don’t wear rings, watches, bracelets or other jewellery that could get could get caught in moving machinery.
5: Don’t wear neck ties or loose turn clothing of any kind.
6: Wear shirts or uppers with sleeves cut off or rolled above the elbows.
7: Always remove gloves before turning on or operating a machine. If material is rough and sharp then gloves must be work place or handle material with machine turned off.
4.3 House Keeping
1: Keeping floor free of oil, grease or any other liquid. Clean up spilled liquid immediately they are sleeping hazards.
2: Aisles should be clear, at all time to avoid tripping of other accident.
3: Store materials in such a way that they cannot become tripping hazards.
4: Don’t leave tools or work on the table of a machine even if the machine in not turning. Tools or work may fall off and cause the fact of injury.
5: Put tools always when not in use.
6: Place the scrap box.

CHAPTER FIVE


5.0 Recommendation
The coordinators should always visit students at their place of attachment to ascertain that they are attached to organizations related to their field of study.
5.1 Conclusion
I thank God who makes me to start and end this programme with ease. The four months industrial training was indeed a fantastic one because I am exposed to the real work on Mechanical Engineering as a profession in terms of theoretical and practical aspect.

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