BY GARBA IFEOLUWA JOSHUA 2018232060043 GIWA JELILI ADEKUNLE 201823206004 IDOWU ODUNAYO TOYOSI 2018232060045ILORI STEPHEN OLUWATOSIN 2018232060046 JOHN EKEKAMBA FORTUNE 2018232060047
A PROJECT PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA (ND) IN THE DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY.
THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN.
This is to certify that this project proposal titled FABRICATION OF COMBINED AUTOMATED HAND-WASHING DEVICE
is carried out by:
GARBA IFEOLUWA JOSHUA 2018232060043 GIWA JELILI ADEKUNLE 2018232060044 IDOWU ODUNAYO TOYOSI 2018232060045 ILORI STEPHEN OLUWATOSIN 2018232060046 JOHN EKEKAMBA FORTUNE 2018232060047
ENGR.OKUNLOLA G.S DATE
MR.ADETOLA .W DATE
———————————– ———————– ENGR. OKE D.B DATE
(HEAD OF DEPARTMENT)
This work is dedicated to the Almighty God, the giver of life.
We are grateful to the Almighty God, the giver of knowledge and life for His mercy, protection and provision throughout the period of our programme. We wouldn`t be here without Him.
We appreciate our lovely parents for their moral, financial support and prayers. They have been wonderful and helpful during our program, may the lord protect and grant them and bless them abundantly. Amen.
We acknowledge the effort of HOD in person of Engr. OKE D.B. We extend our heartfelt gratitude to our project supervisor Engr. Okunlola G.S and our co-supervisor, Mr Adetola .W and all the lecturers in the department of Mechanical Engineering. We appreciate them all.
Our appreciation to all who have contributed for the successful completion of the proposal. Thanks to all our course mates, your continual support and trust in our abilities has not gone unnoticed. report is on the propose work titled FABRICATION OF COMBINED AUTOMATED HAND-WASHING DEVICE. The report discussed the introduction of the work, in which description of the design, fabrication and construction of the work is to be done.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
Table of Figures vi
TABLE OF FIGURES
CHAPTER ONE: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Research problem 1.3 Significance of the study /Expected contribution to knowledge 1.4 Objective of the study 1.5 Justification of the study
CHAPTER TWO 2.1 Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE. 3.1 Materials and Method 3.2 working and drawing
3.3 Analysis of the estimated cost of the study
3.4 Conclusion and Recommendation
Importance of hand washing cannot be over-emphasized, especially in developing nations where eating with hands is a common practice. In some developing cultures, there is always the reluctance of hand washing before meals; and in some, hand washing has become a culturally accepted norm. Eating with the hands was going on for generations before anyone thought of washing their hands first. So along the way, through technology and hygiene practices, people become educated in the improvement of hand washing. Hand washing is the single most important way of preventing the spread of infections, according to the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Unwashed or poorly washed hands are very common way of spreading many diseases such as: cold, flu, ear infections, strep throat, diarrhea and other intestinal problems. Germs and viruses causing these diseases .Over 124 are passed on by such routine things as touching door knobs, shaking hands and putting mouths on a telephone receiver. And in our daily activities we practice one of these either in the offices, at home, in the market places, in the classroom and so on. Good hand washing practices have also been known to reduce the incidence of other diseases, notably pneumonia, trachoma, scabies, skin and eye infections and diarrhea-related diseases like cholera and dysentery, according to World Health Organization (WHO). The promotion of hand washing with soap is also a key strategy for controlling the spread of Avian Influenza (bird flu). After the incidence of SARS-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003, more and more people on their daily lives gave more attention to health habits; the daily number of hand-washing increased than before. This prompted us to contribute with this project as a way to increasing the practice of hand washing in our society so as to remain healthy. This machine is specially designed for use in the offices, public restroom and as well for the general domestic washing and drying of the hands at home. It supplies both soapy and clean water in a sequential order during the washing and rinsing cycle and then supplies a warm air current to dry up the completely washed hand thereof. It is handy and easy to use. More importantly, it can avoid the contagious diseases; for example, when it was a manual type hand washing machine, to turn on/off the tap, you must need the help of your hands. In this case, your hands or fingers would be infected with any virus left by any possible previous user if he or she is infected with a disease. With the automatic type, you will not only use the water at ease, but also avoid any possible contact with any contagious disease. Also some cases were considered whereby people would inevitably, more or less, waste some water as we might have seen people washing their hands at any public places or at home. It is not necessarily because people tend to waste some water at their own will, for example, when it is a traditional mechanical type, people would wash their hands under the pressed water with the switch on, as the switch is positioned at this state, the water keeps being pressed down at the same amount no matter when the person really needs the water to wash or not. This causes low efficiency of water usage. Another possibility is that people who are in a hurry may often unconsciously forget about turning the tap off, if they really forget about it, the water would keep flowing or dripping until it gets turned off by the next user. As for the automatic type, it turns on and off automatically as it senses any object with energy or heat. In this case, the unnecessary waste of water can be avoided. Therefore with all these benefits, the automatic hand washing machine are becoming increasingly popular among schools, families, dining halls, companies.
1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM
The major problem of automated hand washing device is lack of maintenance. Other common problems existing with the device result from faulty installation, poor service procedure.
Why we are to understudy the working principle of automated hand washing device, to have in-depth understanding of the principle of operation, installation and routine maintenance of the automated hand washing device.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY AND EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE. The significance of the study is to fabricate a automated hand washing device; and its component parts.
Some of expected contribution to knowledge are:
- To give the insight to the students on the nitty -gritty of the maintenance of a automated hand-washing device(washing, rinsing and drying)
- To broaden the students knowledge on the installation and technical know-how of a automated hand washing device (washing, rinsing and drying)
- Enlighten future readers or interested students of the working principle of a automated hand washing device production.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives:
- To enhance the level of hygiene wherever applicable.
- To increase the level of awareness of people as regards to the proper washing and drying of hands in accordance with the policy of the National Orientation Agency in Nigeria.
- To solve a considerable fraction of the problems associated with washing and drying of hands, so as to reduce the risk of disease transfer, between individuals.
- To expose the fact that the proper washing and drying of hands after holding objects, using the toilet and even transfer/exchanging money between individuals, will geometrically reduce the rate and/or presence of ill health in the area in question.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Study design and setting
A cross-sectional study was conducted among the undergraduate private university-going students in Banani of Dhaka city during August 2013–September 2013. Banani is an affluent residential area with a number of restaurants, universities, and shopping centers, as well as schools and members’ clubs, in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Out of nine private universities located in Banani, Dhaka, four nearby universities are purposively selected for this survey.
shows the results of multiple regression analysis that analyzes the effect of handwashing practice score by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The regression model explains 43.1% of total variations (R2=0.431). The Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weisberg test showed that heteroscedasticity was not present in the model. Variance inflation factor test with its mean (max) value of 2.4 (4.70) indicates that there is no evidence of multicollinearity problem in the regression model.17 Ramsey regression equation specification error test (RESET) showed that there was sufficient evidence against the hypothesis of omitted variable bias in the model. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice as older students had lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01). On the contrary, marital status showed that the unmarried students were influencing the incensement of handwashing practice more than the married students (P<0.01). The level of higher grade education of participants had also played a significant impact on handwashing practices compared to that of lower grade education.
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
HISTORY OF INVENTION
Background of the Invention In 1847 Hungarian-born physician Ignaz Semmelweis made striking observations which lead to the practice of hand washing in medical clinics. While working at an obstetrics clinic in Vienna, Dr. Semmelweis was disturbed by the fact that fatal child bed (or “puerperal”) fever occurred significantly more frequently in women who were assisted by medical students, compared with those who were assisted by midwives. Through meticulous examination of clinical practices, he discovered that medical students who assisted in childbirth often did so after performing autopsies on patients who had died from sepsis (of bacterial origin). After instituting a strict policy of hand-washing with a chlorinated antiseptic solution, mortality rates dropped by 10- 20 fold within 3 months, demonstrating that transfer of disease could be significantly reduced by this simple hygienic practice.
Invention of Automatic Hand Washing Device.
Automatic hand washing device were first developed in the 1950, but were not produced for commercial use till the late 1980s when they first appeared (to the general public) at airport lavatories. Story has it that the first airport to adopt the new technology is O’Hare Airport. It is called by other names such as electronic, sensor, hands-free, touch-less or even infrared hand washing machines. Automatic hand washing machines have become a central theme in the American experience. They are now found in places, far removed from airports and other institutions, places like restaurants, hotels, casinos, malls, sports arenas as well as residential properties. Known for their assistive qualities, automatic hand washing machines are making their presence felt at living establishments and places where the elderly and or handicapped individuals call homes. Later Developments In the U.S
, issued to Johnson, entitled “HAND WASHING AND DRYING EQUIPMENT UNIT” discloses a portable hand washing and drying unit including a housing having an opening for receiving the hands of the user (the opening of the housing is closed via a door when not in use), the hand washing and cleaning liquid reservoir and electrically powered fan for providing a flow of air to dry the hands. The user manually operates a valve to dispense the cleaning liquid and manually operates a switch to turning on the fan for drying the hands. U.S. PAT No.4, 606, 085, issued to Davies entitled “HAND WASHING DEVICE” discloses an electro mechanical device that is provided with time element which are initiated by the flow of water. The hand washing device has a wash cycle and a rinse cycle and an emollient timer triggered after the rinse cycle to dispense of the emollient. Another apparatus with US PAT No.4, 398, 310 issued to Liengard entitled, “WASH STAND DEVICE” discloses a hand washing device which is triggered by light barrier. The hand washing device comprises a control system for regulating moistening, washing, rinsing and drying stages of the washing process.
Macfartane et al, discloses a machine with US PAT No. 4, 145, 769 entitled “AUTOMATIC HANDWASHING AND DRYING APPARATUS” which includes a first manually operable control device for causing operation of a solenoid operated valve to deliver hand washing water directly into a bowl for a preselected period of time. A second manually operable control device is provided for causing operation of a force air drying structure to provide hand drying air to the bowl. While each of the above hand washing and drying devices function as desired none of them are touch-less or hand free washing machine. This design operates via an infrared sensor; when the users placed his/her hands in the washing chamber without pressing any button as previous designs have one or more buttons to press, may touch the cleaning fluid (soap) dispensing device or the drying device; therefore the efforts to minimize the spread of bacteria and other diseases with the use of automated water dispensing is futile.
3.1 MATERIALS AND METHODS
The focus of the study depends on the possibility of the development and construction of a modern waste bin. The methods to be employed and to be used are design and constructions, fabrication and welding.
3.2 WORKING AND DRAWING
All the above described machines offered a guide to our own design. Our present design solves the aforementioned problems in a straightforward and simple manner. What is provided is touch-less hand washing and drying machine. The machine comprises a housing having a top portion and a bottom portion. The top portion is quasi-rectangular shaped structure comprising a fluid injection system for injecting water and fluid soap to the user’s hands. The bottom portion comprises a box shaped structure where in by the side is the heating chamber for drying the hands. The machine further comprises a wash basin coupled in the interior of said box shaped structure with circular opening under where the used water or liquid soap pass through, an electronic eye for detecting the insertion of hands in said wash basin and a control unit for timing the activation of said water injection system and said liquid soap injection in response to the detecting of said electronic eye to carry out a hand washing process. Also in the heating chamber comprising an air injection system for injecting air through said heating chamber, a thermostat to control the temperature and a sensor that activate the drying process whenever the hands cast dark shadows across it. There are also three different reservoirs, clean water reservoir, liquid soap reservoir and a waste water reservoir. The clean water and liquid soap reservoir contain two different pumps. The first pump delivers soapy water through the discharge nozzle mounted above the washing sink after which the second pump delivers clean water through the same nozzle during washing and rinsing respectively.
Fig. 2.1:Automated hand washing and drying device with detachable centrifugal chamber.
The Connection Pipes The piping system are being used to channel the soapy and system from the reservoirs to the discharge nozzle for washing hand, also another connecting pipe is used to channel the dirty water to the collecting reservoir. The Blower/Fan This is the centrifugal type. It produces air current employing the use of rotating impeller. It also has a stationery casing to guide the flow of air to and from the impeller
Fig.2.2: A sketch of the centrifugal chamber
The heater consists of a heating filament.
The Heating Chamber
The heating chamber is the compartment that houses the heater in this chamber; there is a mixture of the heat generated by the heating filament and the air current generated by the centrifugal fan, thus producing warm air current for effective drying of the washed hands.
The pumps are two in number, one for soapy water and the other is used for pumping clean water. The pumps are 12 bolts direct current electric type each. The choice of direct current type was made because it is les noisy in operation. The pumps deliver certain quantity of water from the reservoir to the washing sink at will.
There are three reservoirs. Each reservoir holds an average of five liters of soapy water, clean water and dirty water. The reservoirs are made of humorplastic materials. The dirty water reservoir has a discharge port through which dirty water is discharged when it gets full.
The sink generally have two taps (faucets) that supply soapy and clean water and may include a spray feature to be used for faster rinsing. The sink includes a drain with a strainer.
Given that the human body temperature is 37°C required drying temperature is 40°C normal room temperature is 35°C. Dimension of the heater casing is (200×200)mm heat gained or lost through the walls of the heating chamber is given by the relation. XKTA Where; = heat (watts) T = temperature difference (°C) A = external surface area (M2) K = thermal conductivity of the insulating materials (0.07 watts/meter °C) X = insulation thickness (m)
67th0=(200×10^-³ ×200×10^-³)×(0.07)×(40-35)=5.6kw. 1 25×10^-³
Electrical Connection The electrical circuit is designed in such a way that when alternating current from the power source (220 volts) mains is applied to the circuit by putting on the wall switch, the heater is on and is regulated/ maintained at 40°C by a thermostat connected to step down the voltage from 220V to 12V and then a rectifier is connected to change the current form. The fan and two pumps (soapy water and clean water pump) are connected in parallel to each other with an indicator light (light emitting diodes) connected in parallel to the fan, first pump and second pump respectively.
The electrical circuit is designed in such a way that when alternating current from the power source (220 volts) mains is applied to the circuit by putting on the wall switch, the heater is on and is regulated/ maintained at 40°C by a thermostat connected to step down the voltage from 220V to 12V and then a rectifier is connected to change the current form. The fan and two pumps (soapy water and clean water pump) are connected in parallel to each other with an indicator light (light emitting diodes) connected in parallel to the fan, first pump and second pump respectively. Electrical Connection The electrical circuit is designed in such a way that when alternating current from the power source (220 volts) mains is applied to the circuit by putting on the wall switch, the heater is on and is regulated/ maintained at 40°C by a thermostat connected to step down the voltage from 220V to 12V and then a rectifier is connected to change the current form. The fan and two pumps (soapy water and clean water pump) are connected in parallel to each other with an indicator light (light emitting diodes) connected in parallel to the fan, first pump and second pump respectly
3.3 ESTIMATED COST
s/n DESCRIPTION QTYUNIT PRICETOTAL PRICE1Water dispenser110,00010,0002Heater120,00020,0003Soap dispenser19,5009,5004Mild steel plate,1mm thickness410,00040,0005Cable2yards1,0002,0006Stainless steel 1mm thickness14,0004,0007Water storage12,0002,0008Liquid soap11,0001,0009Pump11,0001,000TOTALN 86,500
3.4 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This research work has successfully presented a functional and highly efficient low cost sensor-controlled hand washing and drying machine which is usable in different places within our geographical environment and settings such as hotels, homes, hospitals, executive offices, restaurants, schools etc. as way of adopting a good hand washing and drying process or procedure hence improving hygienic condition of individuals; and this eliminates the transfer of facal pathogens from one person to another.
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Altermeter, W. A. (1983), Surgical Antiseptics in Disinfection and Sterilization.
American Society for Microbiology (1996) Americans Caught Dirty Handed for the Evaluation of Health Care Personnel Hand Wash Formations.
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