The word Topology implies a description of how various elements within a system are related physically to each other. In the context of networking systems, we use several different ways of describing how computer might connect to each other via an enabling system.


  1. BUS TOPOLOGY: The Bus Topology describes systems where each computer is linked to another by tapping into a common cable. The network system then shares a common single cable which runs from one computer to another. The bus topology has one distinct advantage over other cabling system. Information can be transmitted from one computer directly to another without travelling through every other node.
    The failure of one network computer does not affect the other network computer. It uses a single cable and does not receive additional hardware to implement the network. This makes this system relatively easy and convenient to implement.
  2. STAR TOPOLOGY: In a start topology network, the network devices are connected to a central point like star. The host can be a mainframe or a smaller computer usually the database and the printer are part of this host computer. The other nodes are attached to the host, and all messages are routed through the host. If the central computer fails, so does the network. This system allows the intelligent control system to be incorporated in the distribution hub.
  3. RING TOPOLOGY: Ring topology is the physical layout of a local network in which a central host computer is attached in a circle, without a central host computer. Message travels round the ring until it reaches the computer to which they are address if the ring is broken, the network fails.
  4. POINT TO POINT NETWORK : it is the simplest topology that creates a permanent link between two end points. There are two types which are: switched point-to-point and permanent point-to-point network:
  5. SWITCHED POINT-TO-POINT NETWORK are basic model of conventional telephony.
    Permanent point-to-point network is the value of guarantee communications between the two end points. This led to Metcalfe’s law which states that the value of an on-demand point-to-point connection is proportional to the number of potential pairs of subscribers.
  6. MESH NETWORK TOPOLOGY: The value of fully mesh network is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two end points, up to end including all the end points, this is known as Roed’s law.


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