• JAMB Regularization 2023/2024 ADMISSION : A Guide for NYSC, HND, And Direct Entry

    The confirmation of this provisional admission is subject to your possession of minimum entry requirement for the programme to which you have been offered this admission with the following conditions;


    1. At the point of registration in the institution, you will be required to present the original(s) certificate(s) or any other acceptable evidence of the qualifications on which this admission has been based. The board reserves the right to withdraw this admission even after registration if it is discovered that you have been involved in any form of examination/admission irregularities.
    2. If it is discovered at any time that you did not posses any of the qualifications which you claim to have obtained, you will be required to withdraw from the institution.
    3. Information relating to date of registration, schedule of charges, accommodation facilities, medical examination and other institution conditions should be obtained directly from the institution to which you have been admitted.
    4. In the absence of any response from you within a reasonable time, the institution to which you have been admitted will assume that you’re not interested in the offer and may proceed to replace you.
    5. You are required to present to the institution at the time of registration a letter of reference from a person of reputable standing in the society that can vouch for your character.
    6. At the point of registration you’re to submit;
    7. JAMB original Result slip
    8. JAMB duplicate admission letter
    9. Copies of your credentials

    Have JAMB started giving admission to students that did JAMB regularization for NYSC, HND, And Direct Entry

    Yes, JAMB has started giving admission to those part-time students that registered for jamb regularization. If you did registered for jamb regularization last year 2022, I’m glad to inform you that admission has started rolling out for part-time students that entered either university or polytechnic. The year included are part-time students that entered school 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 can now check their JAMB portal because admission is rolling out for student that did registered for JAMB regularization last year 2022


    Yes on desktop site, hit the ACCESS MY CAPS. and accept admission.
    Then go to cyber cafe and print your admission letter. Year 2018

    For those hearing JAMB regularization for the first time the information below is meant for you, read carefully.

    JAMB Regularization 2023/2024

    JAMB Regularization is a crucial process for students who gained admission to tertiary institutions through alternative routes such as direct entry (JUPEB, IJMB), part-time programs, or different courses in JAMB. This process ensures that their admissions are officially recognized by the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB). In this guide, we will explore what JAMB Regularization entails, who is eligible for it, the requirements, and the steps to follow for a successful regularization.

    What is JAMB Regularization?

    JAMB Regularization, also known as late application, is the process through which JAMB officially recognizes admissions that were not initially processed by the board. It brings uniformity to the admission process and enables students to obtain their JAMB registration numbers and print their JAMB admission letters.

    Who is Eligible for JAMB Regularization?

    The following categories of students are eligible for JAMB Regularization:

    a) Students whose admission is through direct entry (JUPEB, IJMB): These students need to register with JAMB, even though they may not be required to sit for the JAMB examination.

    b) Part-time students: Admission to part-time programs is locally carried out by the respective institutions. To be eligible for NYSC as a part-time student, JAMB Regularization is necessary.

    c) HND students: After completing their two-year ND program at a polytechnic, most students proceed to apply for HND. JAMB Regularization is required to ensure the recognition of their HND admission.

    d) Those offered admission to a different course in JAMB: If the course a student was admitted to differs from the one they initially applied for in JAMB, they will need to apply for JAMB Regularization.

    How Much Does JAMB Regularization Cost?

    The cost of JAMB Regularization depends on whether the student already has a JAMB registration number:

    Students with JAMB registration numbers: ₦5,000
    Students without JAMB registration numbers (admission obtained in a different year than their JAMB registration): ₦10,000
    Requirements for JAMB Regularization
    To proceed with JAMB Regularization, the following requirements must be met:

    JAMB Registration Number (for students admitted in the same year as their JAMB registration)
    ₦5,000 (for students with JAMB registration numbers) or ₦10,000 (for students without JAMB registration numbers)
    O’ Level Result (WAEC/NECO/NABTEB)
    Student’s personal information (name, date of birth, gender, marital status, email address, phone number)
    Student’s admission/school information (course admitted into, school of admission, head of institution, registrar, matriculation number, matriculation year, graduation list)
    JAMB result (if applicable)

    How do JAMB go about Regularizing part-time students?

    There are two methods for JAMB Regularization: processing at a JAMB office or online application through the student’s portal. However, currently, the online application method is not functional, and JAMB Regularization can only be done at JAMB offices. Here are the steps to follow for JAMB Regularization at a JAMB office:

    JAMB Regularization Processed at JAMB Office

    Visit any JAMB office closest to you.
    Bring all the necessary information and requirements.
    Explain your purpose to the JAMB official, who will guide you through the process.
    Make the required payment.
    The JAMB official will initiate your regularization process and provide

    Most of the conditions here you’ll see in the picture below, to get more information about this visit www.jamb.gov.ng

  • Download Uniabuja Course Past Question and Answers PDF 2023 for free

    How to get UNIABUJA past question for free

    Your past question and answers for UNIABUJA is now available for free. Let me do a formal presentation, the first below courses are all GST handouts and some questions and answer for GST courses. I want to believe that every department is doing GST’s or at least most department are doing it.
    Note: a handout and a past question can have multiple copies.

    The updated Uniabuja Course Past Question PDF for all the school faculties are arranged according to their courses/subjects.

    This Uniabuja Course past Questions and answers PDF is compiled together with the recently held exams for 2023.


    Are you searching for the official Uniabuja Course past Question and answers? If so the Uniabuja Course Past Question are released here and  each students can study his/her exams in any faculty of University of Abuja.

    Uniabuja Course Past Question and Answers for all candidates whose exams are coming can now download the updated copy of the Uniabuja interview questions to prepare and pass your forthcoming exams excellently.

    Uniabuja Course Past Question and Answers for all science faculties (Sciences, Medicine and Engineering) and (Art, accounting and Law) are available for 2023/2024.


    We have also discovered that there are lot of scam sites on the internet that deceive candidates into paying for the past questions without actually providing them with the correct past questions/ don’t provide them with any past questions at all. This is all very wrong and we won’t like you to fall into the trap of such scam sites.

    As a result of this, we have compilled the UNIABUJA Post UTME past question for you. And we give you 100% guarantee on the genuineness of our past questions.


    1. It gives you useful insights into the nature of questions to expects and helps you avoid unpleasant surprises.
    2. In addition, it will be easy for you to recognize repeated questions and answer them with ease and speed.
    3. Similarly, gives you knowledge on the number of questions given and allocated time. Also equally important, it gives exposure to the marking scheme.
    4. Furthermore, the knowledge on these will make you workload easy and less stressful while preparing for the University of Abuja forthcoming Exams

    Download Uniabuja Course Past Question and Answers PDF for free From 100 Level to 400 Level 2023

    UNIABUJA logo
    UNIABUJA admission

    Hello everyone, hope you are all doing well. Please note that Handouts and Past Questions are 100% FREE!!! And you should not pay money to anyone who claims to sell handouts. Meanwhile note that the only handout that you are to pay for is Physical Paper Printout and Photocopy of the handout, cause printing and photocopy is not free because I don’t want you to misunderstand this post. So note that we are not selling handouts or past questions, rather we are helping you to get them. So that’s the reason for the charge.

    So the only service that we charge for are: Physical printout or Photocopy of handouts and Past questions from 100 level to 400 level, Tutorials, Doing of Assignment for you, Projects and also for the time and stress we go through to get some of this things etc. Note the payment is not compulsory and if you feel that you can do everything on your own then you can go ahead. The amount is 5000 naira and you are only paying once and after that you won’t pay for anything again, so if you are interested then send me a dm or a personal message. Meanwhile below are some handouts for some department/courses. And also send us a personal message with your department and the name of the handout that you need.

    Now let me explain the full process of how we work or function. I believe that there are people from different department and faculties in this group. So we charge an amount of 7000 naira only for all our service which will benefit you from 100 level to 400 level and after paying this 5000 naira, you won’t pay for anything again till you graduate. Below are what the 5000 naira is for:

    1. For Complete Handouts from 100 Level to 400 Level
    2. For Complete Past Questions from 100 Level to 400 Level
    3. For Provision of other educational materials
    4. Free Project Topic and Project Guide for the compulsory project that you are to do in your final year.
    5. Tutorials for you in any course that you find difficult
    6. We will also help you to do your assignment or coach you on any assignment that you find difficult.

    So if you are ready to pay your own 7000 naira, then send a message to my dm with a screenshot of all the courses that you are offering, your full name, department, faculty, level and tell me if you want the handouts/past questions in PDF form or in Paper Print out form. We do this to make students life easy, life on campus shouldn’t be stressful. So send me a dm or send me a personal message if you are interested.

    Important Tips about Writing the Examination

    1. Do not spend too much time on any questions. Thus, answer first, those possible questions which you know well as quickly as you can.
    2. Also, always read a question carefully. Make sure that you understand exactly what is required before setting out to answer it
    3. Furthermore, listen to all the instructions given by the Supervisor of the examination. And do exactly what he tells you to do. Also, start when he tells you to start and stop when he tells you to stop,
    4. Also, plan how to answer questions as quickly and carefully as you can.
    5. Make sure you have studied all the Course past question relevant to your department/field before the exam time. The best time to study is the beginning of the semester.
    6. Additionally, remember to fill in the details required on your answer sheet. And these are the examination, year, your name, your Examination number, and the subject If you do not write your name or your Examination number you will not receive any credit for the work done.
    7. Also, if you have more answer spaces than you need, just leave the extra spaces blank.
    8. Additionally, when you have finished one page, go on straight to the next page without wasting time or waiting to be told.
    9. Also, keep calm on the examination day. Your chance of doing well is high if you keep calm than if you are worried and restless.\

    List of Courses Offered in UNIABUJA





































    ‣ LAW



















    Hard Copy Achievable
    Nevertheless, spending a little amount to obtain accurate past questions and answers PDF, then print it out in hardcopy if needed can go a long way to help you gain good grades


    Hard copies aid easy access too in situations of power shortage. Also, some students find hard copy materials easy to read. This is because the continuous staring at the phone or system screen can cause damage to the eyes.
    Arrangements of Our Course Past Questions for the University of Abuja, Gwagwalada(UNIABUJA)
    Note that, our past questions are well arranged. Get high grades by getting the complete set of our Course past questions for the University of Abuja, Gwagwalada(UNIABUJA). For example, if you are writing to gain admission into the faculty of engineering.

    Note: the subjects we will send to you depend on the course you are studying for and this depends on what you tell us!.

    Sample Course Past Questions and Answers

    Guidelines to Help You Study
    ‣ Try to concentrate

    ‣ Study with the Post UTME past question an answers

    ‣ Understand Post UTME formal and study its syllabus

    ‣ Create a good study environment

    ‣ Start studying on time. Do not wait until it is two weeks to the exam before you begin to study.

    Hard Copy Achievable

    You will however need to spend a little amount to obtain accurate past questions and answers PDF. This can then be printed out in hardcopy if needed. And also it can go a long way to help you gain your admission.

    Hard copies aid easy access too in situations of power shortage. Also some students find hard copy materials easy to read. This is because the continuous staring at the phone or system screen can cause damage to the eyes.


    Payment Procedure for the UNIABUJA Post UTME Past Questions
    Payment to the following bank account sent to your SMS or watsapp Number, either by bank deposits slip or online transfer. After payment, you can directly message me on my watsapp number by clicking the Watsapp picture link below

    DISCLAIMER! The Content on this page is solely written to meet the needs and to guide aspirants of the University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, and other schools around Nigeria.
    This article was written on good intentions and does not mean to cause any disturbances. If you feel any infringement of content or copyright, please kindly contact us privately.


    How to get started with motivation

    Student motivation is defined as the ability to attain long or short term academic objectives. It also manifest as enthusiasm and a good attitude toward the learning process. This is the force that drive a student to accomplish a goal. The deep meaning of student means willingness to learn and be part of a class.

    Motivation for student is far more than definition, you’ve to do it. In school we got numerous kids both the intelligent one and dull one but one surprising fact is that all teachers never intended to fail any child, nevertheless one child will surely fail. It’s just like that. Despite that there’re many reasons why a child should pass or fail. Maybe he hasn’t gotten the right teacher or he’s not ready for school and many thousands reason you can list.

    But one important fact is that no one can help you except you help yourself, this is the motivation for student. If I should get all resources in the world to get you to be at your best, if you decide you’re not ready to change yet; all those research accumulated are nothing but waste.
    I’ve experienced downfalls too.

    Note: I didn’t mean only academic aspect but all aspect of life.
    Early in life when I was 18, in school I got many excuses to say I’m not a good student. Couldn’t read simple ABC …….Z. It was so embarrassing to me then. It was a big disgrace to the extent that teacher has to separate the brilliant student from the dull ones.

    This was done in such a way that whenever anybody comes in, he/she will notice the difference between each side. And she will go further by putting me in the front role of the dull ones desk.

    I end up repeating that class. But what change me was a little motivation I got from the new teacher and my mum’s be perspective, to get me a lesson teacher to change my life.

    So this experience got me to know that many people can do more, if only they can get little motivation for success and that’s the purpose of this write-up.

    In support of the story just shortly said, I was found to be a DPP student and not a full time student in The polytechnic of Ibadan (not university), far from the school I dreamed about. But I made up my mind to come out with first class, Lo and behold I got an aggregate of 3.38 CGPA in my first semester.

    Luckily, I met a brother who challenge me and also told me it’s impossible to have distinction in school because for the past 6 years + there’s no record of distinction. I’m talking of year 2019. And I had just 3.38 in my first semester cumulative.

    How do I come out of this spell, I must have 3.70 as my CGPA in my second semester. So I set a goal to achieve 4.0 CGPA out of 4.0 isn’t that mad, but possible.

    This is a school where the lecturers don’t care about their student. At the end of semester I missed but got 3.71 CGPA and that earn me distinction but the next year all I crave for is 4.0 CGPA nothing else. i missed again but end up graduating with distinction. If i can do it you can do more.

    Please in the next few days I want you to either message or snap a document of a change in your life to this website. Love you as you do that. More Wins!

    Quote: Successful people set their goal so high and miss but unsuccessful people set their goal so little and get

  • How Does UniAbuja Give Out Admissions?

    Good day to you all, I’ll be telling you things about the aforementioned topic but I’ll try to make it brief.

    It’s not a new thing to you that admission will start reeling out from March upwards, which we are in already, let me just tell you this, the admission will start either mid or late March.

    UniAbuja admission is not a one-day or one-week stuff, the admission duration is always more than a month, i.e the admission process may take like 3 months before it get concluded, that’s how UniAbuja do conduct her admission exercise.

    And why is it always like that…?

    Well, UniAbuja always give out the admission in a gradual process, whereby, Jambites will get admission first before Direct Entry Applicants start seeing theirs, and mind you, the admission is always by faculty by faculty or department by department, that’s why the admissions won’t come all at the same time.

    The admission will come in starting from Merit then downwards. In this phase, those with high Jamb scores and strong O’level results for the course they applied for, will see their admissions first before any other applicants. Mind you, the total number of applicants for each course will determine how sure your admission will be for that course, because all departments have their respective admission quotas, i.e the total amount of applicants they can admit into that department. As for now, Political Science has the highest admission quota but I won’t tell you the total amount of students we do admit into it.

    And also, UniAbuja admits applicants from each state of the country
    Let me give brief explanation to this,

    No matter the amount of aspirants that applied from a state, the school must admit from there a certain number of students. Let’s say we have just 10 applicants from Kebbi State, and they scored low in their Jamb score, the school must still admit them as far as they meet our general cut off mark which is 180. So, no discrimination or segregation here at all, the school will admit from all states, that’s why you do see at times that someone that scored lesser got admission quick than someone that scored higher, the state of origin and the total amount of applicants that applied from each state matters most.

    So, what about the collaboration between the School and Jamb…?

    In this phase, it is the school that will give you admission, not Jamb!
    After maximum scrutiny from the school and they are satisfied with your qualification, then they will award you with admission, and if they are not fully convinced of your qualifications, they may decide to drop you into another department by giving you another course. If they don’t find you qualifiable enough, then you won’t get admission at all.

    After the school has given you admission, then they will forward your details to Jamb so that Jamb can announce the admission to you via your Jamb CAPS, this is so because all Institutions Regular Admissions MUST pass through Jamb, that’s the law behind the tertiary education admission system.

    And know this, the moment the school award you admission, you don’t need to bother much on Jamb coz your admission will surely appear there, be it soon or later. Same thing applies to Direct Entry Applicants…

    University of Abuja admission requirements
    Admission into university of Abuja

    So, how is UniAbuja DIRECT ENTRY Admission Process…?

    Before you can get your D.E Admission into our 200L here, you must have upper credit or credit in your ND or NCE qualification else you might have to start from 100L. IIf you are a Bsc. holder, you can get your 200L admission with any qualification, either 1st class, 2nd class or lower.

    As for IJMB or JUPEB holder, if you score less than 10 points, you may have to start from 100L for some courses, the fact that you want to enter here as a Direct Entry applicant doesn’t mean they will just give you 200L like that, what you are bringing to us (your qualifications) matters most.

    And if things go as planned, you guys will start school with us in the early month of May, just pray towards your admissions.

    And don’t forget to always use the comments box below with maximum courtesy and respect. With this, every question will be answered, even though my schedule is always tight.

    But if you come to the comment box to ask of anything that I’ve already addressed in this article, I’ll proudly ignore and delete such comment, sorry in advance.

  • FUTA Post UTME/DE Screening Past Questions & Answers [FREE DOWNLOAD]

    Download FUTA Post UTME question for free

    For Your Post UTME, we have FUTA Post UTME Past Questions for all departments available here. And you can also download as much as possible for free.

    We are offering FREE post UTME past questions and answers to candidates? We understand that past questions are one of the most helpful tools available to prepare for examinations as they provide students with a practical insight on what to expect in the examinations.
    Due to the competitive and merging nature of the Federal University of Technology, Akure admission process, it is pertinent for candidates to prepare adequately for the FUTA Post UTME. It is also necessary for candidates that met the FUTA cut-off mark to prepare very well before the Post UTME screening exercise. Before downloading FUTA Post UTME PDF Questions, there are some information you should take notes of, that are essential for you to be successfully admitted into this great citadel. Although this great citadel has not started registration for Post UTME yet, we’ll surely update you, when they start. But every aspirants should use this time we’ll, to prepare for their respective subject combination because it’s going to be a very tough one due to merging of two sets

    Eligibility for FUTA Post UTME 2022

    1. Providing false information or upload incorrect credentials will automatically be disqualified
    2. Applicants who chose Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) as their 1st choice.
    3. Candidates who scored 200 and above in the last Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).
    4. Candidates who possess a minimum of five(5) O’level credit passes in accordance with the University’s Entry Requirements.
    5. Candidates should be 17 years and above.

    How to Apply for Post UTME Form

    If you’re getting ready for the Post UTME make sure you always check their website for updated information Candidates are to Visit https://www.futa.edu.ng/ but for now don’t be deceived by any platform telling you the Post Utme Form is now available. Make sure you always check their website for authentication.

    You can now download the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) post UTME past questions and answers (PDF) for free here. This page contains core subject combinations for FUTA post UTME. On this page is also the FUTA Post UTME subjects for candidates applying for Electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, mechatronics engineering, metallurgical engineering, mining engineering, Biochemistry, International Relations, Physiology, Accounting, Environmental and so on.

    Download FUTA Post UTME Past Questions and Answers For Free

    The Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) past questions and answers are available in a free downloadable PDF format. All you have to do is click on the subject of your choice to start downloading.

    NOTE: The FUTA Post-UTME Past-Questions and Answers are absolutely free.

    The FUTA past questions and answers contain the following subjects:

    1. Biology (Questions)
    2. Physics (Questions)
    3. English (Questions)
    4. Mathematics (Questions)
    5. Chemistry (Questions).
    6. Biology (Answers)
    7. Physics (Answers)
    8. English (Answers)
    9. Mathematics (Answers)
    10. Chemistry (Answers)
  • Download OAU Post UTME question for free

    Download Your Post UTME Past Questions

    OAU Post UTME Past Questions for all departments is now available for free here. You can also download as much as possible for free.

    You can now download the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) post UTME past questions and answers (PDF) for free here. This page contains core subject combinations for OAU post UTME. On this page is also the OAU Post UTME subjects for candidates applying for Medicine and Surgery, Law, Biochemistry, International Relations, Physiology, Accounting, Environmental, Engineering and so on.

    OAU English past question
    OAU chemistry questions
    OAU mathematics questions
    OAU physics question

    Before downloading the PDF or OAU Post UTME Questions, there are some information you should take notes of, that are essential for your success into this great citadel

    Eligibility for OAU Post UTME 2022

    1. Candidates must check their screening schedule on the OAU Portal from 12th October 2022.
    2. Candidates will also be required to participate in the Post-UTME screening on their allotted dates and time from 17th October to 22nd October 2022. Applicants that provide false information or upload incorrect credentials will be
      automatically disqualified.Candidates who chose Obafemi Awolowo University as their 1st choice.
    3. Candidates who scored 200 and above in the last Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).
    4. Candidates who possess a minimum of five(5) O’level credit passes in accordance with the University’s Entry Requirements.
    5. Candidates who are 17 years and above.

    NOTE: Deadline for OAU 2022 Post UTME Registration as stated on the application website closes on Saturday, October 15, 2022.

    How to Apply for Post UTME Form

    Applicants are to pay the screening fee of N2,000.00 via the online portal for the registration, check other details below:
    Candidates are to Visit https://admissions.oauife.edu.ng/

    1. Log on to the site with your JAMB Registration Number as Username and Surname as Password.
    2. Fill out the biodata form and click continue.
    3. Obtain an RRR (Remita Retrieval Reference) and use it to make payments at any commercial bank.
    4. Once payment is accepted, the system logs out and you can now log in again.
    5. Login, Complete the form and Submit

    The Management of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (OAU) has released the 2022/2023 Post UTME screening application form. Interested applicants can now register for the form online and download PDFs for free on this platform



    Soyombo oluwajuwonlo gabriel 2018702030240
    Sangodoyin ajibola mujeeb 2018702030237
    Sowunmi sunday Joseph 2018702030239
    Sunmonu akinkunmi quadri 2018702030241
    Fadare temitayo Lawrence. 2018702030121
    Oyelabi Timileyin Samuel. 2016070203234


    MARCH, 2021.


    I hereby certify that this project work “CONSTRUCTION OF A REMOTE CONTROL MOTOR CAR” was carried out by:

    Soyombo oluwajuwonlo gabriel 2018702030240
    Sangodoyin ajibola mujeeb 2018702030237
    Sowunmi sunday Joseph 2018702030239
    Sunmonu akinkunmi quadri 2018702030241
    Fadare temitayo Lawrence. 2018702030121
    Oyelabi Timileyin Samuel. 2016070203234

    of the Department of Electrical Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

    ________ ____

    ________ ____
    Head of Department


    3.0 METHODOLOGY 12


    This work is on a remote control motor car. Remote controlled car is battery/ powered model cars or trucks that can be controlled from a distance using a specialized transmitter or remote. This Radio controlled system is adopted in many vehicles like cars, boats, planes, and even helicopters and scale railway locomotives. In this work we will use a couple of ICs and a motor fixed to a chassis to make a remote control car. This work involve a brief idea is to transmit control signals through radio frequency and receive it through a receiver module in the car. We will have two switches in our remote control to power each motor of the car.

    The objective of this project is to design a low cost remote control toy or robot. In this work we shall assemble the motors, circuit, and wheels on the chassis.




    4.4 TESTING
    4.5 RESULT




    Remote control car referred to as RC Car, RC is short for Radio control or Remote control. In Europe, Japan and Southeast Asian countries, the remote control model car race is a kind of sports competitions and a noble sport, even a high-tech hobby. This is a competition from age limit because enthusiasts who participate in this sport is aged from 8 to 80 years. This also suggests that the remote control cars is the same as remote control aircraft, whether adult or children can play. However, it has a certain degree of risk, because the remote control car is not a simple toy, its principle is the same as the real car. So, I still recommend that children would better to accompany by their parents.
    Electric remote control car is primarily provided power by an electric motor. Due to powered by a battery, it has higher overall operating efficiency and excellent acceleration performance of vehicles. Because of Clean Energy, the vehicle maintenance is very convenient, just pay attention to the maintenance of transmission parts. But because the electric motor remote control car need high requirements of motor performance and battery performance, so the motor and battery  consumption is very high in the beginning, coupled with the electronic speed control, remote equipment costs.
    Kids using manual car as fun or for recreation involved physical strength and sometimes can be hazardous in that they can be injured whenever the car crash with an object or obstacle. However, this device can overcome this problem. This device does not involve physical strength in that the motor is been controlled wirelessly using remote.
    This project was aimed at building a wireless remotely controlled motor car. It involves using a remote to control movement and direction of a car.
    The objective of this project is to design a low cost remote control toy or robot. There are so many projects available to make motor toys. But here we are providing a simple circuit with low cost electronics components.
    It is very useful to study the basics of wireless communication for electronics beginners. Mainly wireless car projects use two types of technologies Infra-Red (IR) and Radio Frequency (RF). IR remote control sends infrared rays to the car circuit. In case of IR remote control, line of sight with the receiving circuit is necessary and its range is only up to 10 meters. But in case of RF remote Radio Frequency waves plays the role, so signal can go through walls and are able to provide a range up to 35 meters.
    Playing with RC cars can significantly develop and improve a child’s visual-motor coordination. This is the ability to coordinate visual information with motor output. Along with this skill is visual perception, which is the ability to recognize, recall, discriminate and make sense of what we see.
    RC car play enhances spatial awareness spatial intelligence and awareness skills, which results in increased dexterity. In addition, kids learn about cause-and-effect during play as they work out which buttons make the car go in each direction.
    While playing with other children, it also teaches them to swerve around obstacles they can’t control.
    And it is no stretch to say that playing with remote control cares promotes creativity and imagination. While adults may be content to have their cars zip around a parking lot, or engage in structured games or competition, kids tend to use their imagination and create make-believe settings and scenarios.
    This device was able to provide a range up to 35 meters. To operate this device becomes a problem when the remote is faulty or whenever the battery of the remote runs down
    1. RF Transmitter: Amplitude shift keying (ASKRF) transmitter module is a small PCB sub-assembly capable of transmitting a radio wave and modulating that wave to carry data. Transmitter modules are usually implemented alongside a microcontroller which will provide data to the module which can be transmitted.
    2. RF Receiver: Amplitude shift keying (ASK RF) Receiver serial data and transmits it wirelessly through its RF antenna. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps–10Kbps. RF receiver receives the transmitted data and it is operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter.
    3. HT12E Encoder IC: HT12E is used to encode the data for RF Transmitter and HT12D is used to decode the data received by RF receiver. Product Features. The HT12E Encoder IC are series of CMOSLS Is for Remote Control system applications. They are capable of Encoding 12 bit of information which consists of 8 address bits and 4data bits.
    4. HT12D Decoder IC: HT12D is a 212series decoder IC (Integrated Circuit) for remote control applications manufactured by Holtek. It is commonly used for radio frequency (RF) wireless applications.
    5. L293D Motor Driver: L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor Driver IC which allows DC motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin IC which can control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in any direction. It means that you can control two DC motor with a single L293DIC.
    6. LED: Light Emmiting Diode it serves as flow of connection from the remote control to the motor car.
    Resistor 1k: It resist the current of the motor, which serves as brake to the remote car
    Battery: 9V/12V it is been used to power the circuit.


    In this chapter all the literature and terms related to this work are reviewed.
    By the early 1980s, the industry moved to infrared, or IR, remote technology. The IR remote works by using a low frequency light beam, so low that the human eye cannot see it, but which can be detected by a receiver in the TV. Zenith’s development of cable-compatible tuning and teletext technologies in the 1980s greatly enhanced the capabilities and uses for infrared television (TV) remotes. Today, remote control is a standard feature on other consumer electronics products, including video cassette recorders (VCRs), cable and satellite boxes, digital video disc players and home audio receivers. And the most sophisticated TV sets have remotes with as many as 50 buttons.
    Zenith developed the world’s first wireless trackball TV remote control, called Z-Trak. The remote works like a computer mouse – click the ball and a cursor appears on the TV screen. Roll the ball and the cursor activates control menus hidden in different corners of the screen. Then, activate something from those menu bass, treble, contrast, colour temperature, and channel [5, 6, 7].
    According to Sajidullah S. Khan, Anuja Khodustar and Koli, N.A who worked on Home automation appliance (2011) and striking results were obtained in terms of reduction in delay time between the transitions of streams from client to server using Java enabled program.
    More so, Kai-Hung Liang, Kuo-Han Kan, and Szu-Chi Tien (2013) who carried out work on the precision positioning with shape-memory-alloy actuators. The result obtained using the inversion of non-linear model with model-reference-adaptive system (MRAS) was robust as regards to external disturbances and the positioning performance [1].
    The earliest example of remote control by radio waves was developed in 1898 by Nikola Tesla and described in his patent, U.S. Patent 613,809, named Method of an Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vehicle or Vehicles. In 1898, he demonstrated a radio-controlled boat to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. Tesla called his boat a “teleautomaton”.
    In 1903, Leonardo Torres Quevedo presented the Telekino at the Paris Academy of Science, accompanied by a brief, and making an experimental demonstration. In the same time he obtained a patent in France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. The Telekino consisted of a robot that executed commands transmitted by electromagnetic waves. With the Telekino, Torres-Quevedo laid down modern wireless remote-control operation principles and was a pioneer in the field of remote control. In 1906, in the presence of the king and before a great crowd, Torres successfully demonstrated the invention in the port of Bilbao, guiding a boat from the shore. Later, he would try to apply the Telekino to projectiles and torpedoes, but had to abandon the project for lack of financing.
    The first remote-controlled model aeroplane flew in 1932, and the use of remote control technology for military purposes was worked intensively during the Second World War, one result of this being the German Waterfall missile.
    By the late 1930s, several radio manufacturers offered remote controls for some of their higher-end models. Most of these were connected to the set being controlled by wires, but the Philco Mystery Control (1939) was a battery-operated low-frequency radio transmitter, thus making it the first wireless remote control for a consumer electronics device.
    Television remote controls
    The first remote intended to control a television was developed by Zenith Radio Corporation in 1950. The remote, called “Lazy Bones”, was connected to the television by a wire. A wireless remote control, the “Flashmatic”, was developed in 1955 by Eugene Polley. It worked by shining a beam of light onto a photoelectric cell, but the cell did not distinguish between light from the remote and light from other sources. The Flashmatic also had to be pointed very precisely at the receiver in order to work.[7]In 1956, Robert Adler developed “Zenith Space Command”, a wireless remote. It was mechanical and used ultrasound to change the channel and volume. When the user pushed a button on the remote control, it clicked and struck a bar, hence the term “clicker”. Each bar emitted a different frequency and circuits in the television detected this sound. The invention of the transistor made possible cheaper electronic remotes that contained a piezoelectric crystal that was fed by an oscillating electric current at a frequency near or above the upper threshold of human hearing, though still audible to dogs. The receiver contained a microphone attached to a circuit that was tuned to the same frequency. Some problems with this method were that the receiver could be triggered accidentally by naturally occurring noises, and some people could hear the piercing ultrasonic signals. There was an incident in which a toy xylophone changed the channels on such sets because some of the overtones from the xylophone matched the remote’s ultrasonic frequency.
    The impetus for a more complex type of television remote control came in 1973, with th upe development of the Ceefax teletext service by the BBC. Most commercial remote controls at that time had a limited number of functions, sometimes as few as three: next channel,

    previous channel, and volume/off. This type of control did not meet the needs of teletext sets, where pages were identified with three-digit numbers. A remote control to select teletext pages would need buttons for each numeral from zero to nine, as well as other control functions, such as switching from text to picture, and the normal television controls of volume, channel, brightness, colour intensity, etc. Early teletext sets used wired remote controls to select pages, but the continuous use of the remote control required for teletext quickly indicated the need for a wireless device. So BBC engineers began talks with one or two television manufacturers, which led to early prototypes in around 1977–1978 that could control many more functions. ITT was one of the companies and later gave its name to the ITT protocol of infrared communication.
    In 1980, a Canadian company, Viewstar, Inc., was formed by engineer Paul Hrivnak and started producing a cable TV converter with an infrared remote control. At the time the most popular remote control was the Starcom of Jerrold (a division of General Instruments) which used 40-kHz sound to change channels. The Viewstar converter was an immediate success, the millionth converter being sold on March 21, 1985, with 1.6 million sold by 1989.
    In 2006, Hillcrest Labs introduced the Loop pointer, a remote control that used Hillcrest’s Freespace motion control technology to allow users to control their televisions with natural gestures. The Loop had just four buttons and a scroll wheel. Freespace-enabled remote controls use radio waves to communicate with a USB antenna connected to a computer that is also connected to the television, so they do not need to be pointed at the PC, or even have a direct line of sight.
    Some television manufacturers now include Bluetooth remotes to control the television without requiring line of sight, overcoming the limited range in IR-based remotes.
    Effect of the early television remote control
    The remote allowed audiences, for the first time, to interact with their TV without using the buttons on the TV. They no longer watched programs just because they did not want to get up to change the channel. They could also channel surf during commercials, or turn the sound off.
    The invention of the remote control has led to several changes in television programming. One was the creation of split screen credits. According to James Gleick, an NBC research team discovered that when the credits started rolling after a program, 25% of its viewers would change the channel before it was over. Because of this, the NBC 2000 unit invented the “squeeze and tease” which squeezed the credits onto one third of the screen while the final minutes of the broadcast aired simultaneously.
    The remote control also led to an adjustment in commercial airings. Networks began to feel that they could not afford to have commercials between programs because it would detract viewers from staying tuned into their channel. Programmers decided to place commercials in the middle of programs to make the transition to the next show direct.
    Other remote controls
    In the 1980s Steve Wozniak of Apple started a company named CL 9. The purpose of this company was to create a remote control that could operate multiple electronic devices. The CORE unit (Controller Of Remote Equipment) was introduced in the fall of 1987. The advantage to this remote controller was that it could “learn” remote signals from different devices. It had the ability to perform specific or multiple functions at various times with its built-in clock. It was the first remote control that could be linked to a computer and loaded with updated software code as needed.
    The CORE unit never made a huge impact on the market. It was much too cumbersome for the average user to program, but it received rave reviews from those who could. These obstacles eventually led to the demise of CL 9, but two of its employees continued the business under the name Celadon. This was one of the first computer-controlled learning remote controls on the market.
    The proliferation of remote controls
    By the early 2000s, the number of consumer electronic devices in most homes greatly increased, along with the number of remotes to control those devices. According to the Consumer Electronics Association, an average American home has four remotes. To operate a home theater as many as five or six remotes may be required, including one for cable or satellite receiver, VCR or digital video recorder (DVR/PVR), DVD player, TV and audio amplifier. Several of these remotes may need to be used sequentially but, as there are no accepted interface guidelines, the process is increasingly cumbersome.
    Many specialists, including Jakob Nielsen, a renowned usability specialist, and Robert Adler, the inventor of the modern remote, note how confusing, unwieldy and frustrating the multiplying remotes have become. Because of this proliferation of remote controls, universal remote controls that manage multiple devices are becoming increasingly popular.
    According to different classification of motivation, remote controlled car classified as below:
    1. Oil move RC car: Oil move remote control model car is powered by a fuel engine, it also can be divided into classified according to the type of fuel. Fuel powered engine has the advantage of powerful, it has high degree of onomatopoeia vehicle model simulation, and can give players a real feel. The advantages is large fuel. If there is leakage, the maintenance will be very troublesome. In addition, since the fuel is added to increase the engine power output compounds that are corrosive, so vehicles need to do careful corrosion protection, maintenance cost is not small.
    2. Electric remote control car: Electric remote control car is primarily provided power by an electric motor. Due to powered by a battery, it has the higher the overall operating efficiency and excellent acceleration performance of vehicles. Because of Clean Energy, the vehicle maintenance is very convenient, just pay attention to the maintenance of transmission parts. But because the electric motor remote control car need high requirements of motor performance and battery performance, so the motor and battery  consumption is very high in the beginning, coupled with the electronic speed control, remote equipment costs. If you want to run an electric model cars, you will be basically going to spend over 2000, which is one of reason to make electric remote control model car restrictions. According to the remote control car driver type and shape classification
    3. SUV: SUV can be seen as a flat road car variant, the chassis is also a flat shape. But diameter of tires is much larger, suspension travel has also increased, which is mainly to increase the performance of the vehicle through performance. At the same time to increase vehicle power, SUV also need to put forward higher requirements in vehicle steering or other aspects of the vehicle on-board electronic systems, such as the need for greater torque servo steering gear to provide powerful steering torque, etc.. The advantages of SUV is that to retains the high-speed performance and increase through performance. That is a relatively funny remote control car.
    4. Monster Truck: Do not think that big wheels can be called monster truck. Monster truck is relatively flat road cars and SUV, it has its own unique characteristics. In addition to large wheels, truck biggest feature is hardly a vehicle chassis, to support vehicles parts transmission and axle systems are generally appeared in the form of frames and side plates, as if all the parts are ” hanging” on the frame. The benefits is to improve the off-road performance. The bottom of the car can be made arch to meet the rugged road, so the car has high playability. According to the different speeds, it can be graded, ordinary monster and climb monster truck. The climb monster truck is mainly designed to climb the rugged road, a huge vehicle torque, but in order to meet the torque and stability, the speed will be very slow. vehicle work requirement is very high, the price does not poor.
    5. Flat road car: Flat road vehicles are concerned for RVs and cars, because of its low chassis, chassis plate-like, vehicles through poor performance, but the straight line stability and acceleration are the most superior. Two -wheel-drive flat road car is mainly used for racing, flat road four-wheel drive sports car for racing, drift race, etc.



    In this project we are designing an RF remote control. For that we are using an ASK transmitter receiver module. Microcontroller is avoided in the circuit to make it cost effective. ASK module is used as the remote transmitter, two IC’s HT12E and HT12D is used for Encoding and Decoding. Circuit diagram and circuit explanation given below will help the reader to understand how a remote control car.
    Before carrying out any project, the block diagram must be drawn and fully understood. Block diagram gives a pictorial understanding of any work. The block diagram of the system is as below:

    Block diagram of remote control car

    Transmitter Section:
    Controlling Switches: Four button switches are used in the remote control to move the car backward, forward, left and right.
    HT12E Encoder IC: It is a 212 series encoder IC used for wireless communication applications. It is mainly used to convert 12 bit parallel data (8 address bits and 4 data bits) to serial out so that it can be transmitted using a transmitter Module.
    RF Tx Module: 434 MHz ASK transmitter module for transmission. It is capable of providing a data rate of about 8kbps.
    Battery: 3V button cell is used to power the remote.
    Receiver Section:
    RF Rx Module: A high sensitivity 434 MHz ASK Receiver module for receiving the data from remote control.
    HT12D Decoder IC: It is a 1212 series decoder IC used for wireless communication applications. It converts the serial input to parallel out.
    Motor Driver: L293D motor driver is used to drive two motors. L293D provides bidirectional drive current up to 600mA at voltages from 4.5V to 36V.
    Motors: Here two BO motors are used which are driven by the motor driver L293D and both of them are connected to robotic wheels to move the car.
    Battery: Receiver section need more power than the remote control circuit. So 9V/12V battery is required to power the circuit.
    Only basic electronic components were used here for the project. All datasheets and link to buy the components online are provided below:
    1K Resistor: 8
    HT12E Encoder IC: 1
    HT12D Decoder IC: 1
    ASK RF Transmitter: 1
    ASK RF Receiver: 1
    L293D Motor Driver: 1    
    3V Button Cell with holder (Remote): 1
    9V/12V Battery with holder (Receiver/Car): 1         
    Button Switch: 4
    BO Motor: 2
    Robotic Wheels: 4
     The circuit diagram of the device is as below:

    RF remote for car

    Rc car circuit diagram with remote control

    RC car circuit diagram with remote transmitter
    Circuit design of this remote control car is simple and is of low cost as we are not using a microcontroller in it. Main components are two communication ICs (HT12D and HT12E) and an ASK RF transmitter receiver module.
    RC car circuit diagram with remote transmitter is designed in a compact way to make it as small as possible. Remote uses four button switches (S1, S2, S3, and S4) to control the toy. Digital data’s from the switches are encoded by the HT12E encoder IC and are transmitted to the receiver through ASK RF Module. When we press these switches, 4 data bits and 8 address bits are serially encoded and output through the pin “DOUT” is given to the 434 MHz Transmitter.  Circuit is so simple due to the simple coupling of ASK module with HT12E and HT12D pair. Remote control is power by a 3V button cell.          
    Receiver section receives the signal with the help of 434 MHz ASK module and provides it to the decoder IC. “DIN” pin of HT12D gets the data from RF module and checks it three times before decoding. And if received address data matches with the encoder address data, then IC will decode the data bits and provides it directly to L293D motor driver. This driver is used to control the motors forward and backward according to the received signal. An LED is connected to the valid transmit pin of Decoder IC to indicate a valid transmission. 
    Left Motor Direction
    Right Motor Direction
    Direction of Car

    RC car table diagram with direction



    In building this project, the following procedures were properly considered,
    I. Purposing of the entire materials / Components needed
    ii. Resistance check of the components bought with the help of ohmmeter before making the necessary connection with the components
    iii. Drafting out a schematic diagram or how to arrange the materials / components.
    iv. Testing the completed system to see if the design works and
    v. Finally, implementation of design of the project.
    Having procured all the materials, I processed into the arrangement of the components into the Vero board but we could not laid the ics directly on the bread board because the heat soldering iron emits while soldering, proper soldering of the components then followed. The components were all soldered into the board after which it was correctly confirmed done.
    Having provided the casing and having finished the construction of the sections of this system, the assembling into the casing followed. The sections were properly laid out and assembled into the casing where the general coupling and linkages into the peripheral devices took place.
    The transformer was bolted directly to the bottom of the case. This was followed by mounting of the power section of the circuit board. A gap was made between one mounting and the successive ones. This is necessary to avoid overcrowding. The vero board is also mounted at the upper side of the case. The resistors, transistors, and other components used were mounted on the vero board. All the accessories were highly fixed to avoid slack that may result in the process of operations
    4.4 TESTING
    After implementing the circuit on a project board, the different sections of the complete system were tested to ensure that they were in good operating condition. The continuity test carried out is to ensure that the circuit or components are properly linked together. This test was carried out before power was supplied to the circuit. Finally, after troubleshooting has been done on the whole circuit, power was supplied to the circuit. Visual troubleshooting was also carried out at this stage to ensure that the components do not burn out.
    4.5 RESULT
    The results obtained during the construction states after necessary troubleshooting were satisfactory. The system was able to respond to its operation.
    Although this project has not been given due recognition by the authority concerned, whenever this equipment finds its use the case is relatively cheap with a good efficiency and improves on its reliability. Due attention will be given to the viability of this project reliability maintainability and also the evaluation.
    In the design of the remote control motor car with bidirectional rotation, reliability is taken into consideration to improve on the system performance. Here the concept of reliability has been associated, in a qualitative way with good design endurance consistence quality and dependability in recent years however, the much greater complexity of the line selector and the seriousness of a failure in the system have made it necessary to attempt not only to improve the reliability of the equipment but also to assesses it in qualitative terms.
    In order to appreciate some of the difficulties which are involved in the designed of this project, imagine a discussion concerning the relative merits of remote control motor car in the first place the specifications of the picture quality and staying. The discussion may then turn to the likelihood of faults developing in the sets. This is important not only because of the annoyance caused to the viewer by a failure but pay a higher initial cost for an automatic change over switch in return for an assurance that the extra cost will mean smaller maintenance costs. Therefore, from this little explanation, “Reliability can be defined as the characteristics of a component or of a system which may be expressed by the probability that it will perform a required function under started conditions for a specified period of time.
    In this design and construction of this project (remote control motor car), it is usually very important to note that maintainability is another area or aspect taken into consideration since high initial or production cost will lead to a low maintenance cost. The remote control motor car has a high input output-performance, but relatively cheap, easy and low maintenance cost.
    Therefore maintainability of the probability that a device will be restored to operational effectiveness within a given period of time when the maintenance action as performance in accordance with prescribed procedures”.
    Considering the cost of this project one must note that fact that it is not mass production. As such to single handedly manufacture it without any industrial aided production machine will in no doubt in our much expenses, the initial market survey did not prove successful due to irregular price of item such as those used in this project.
    The expenditure made in purchasing all the components / materials and quantity used in building this project is tabulated as show below.


    In this work, remote controlled motor car was implemented. The proposed system was built and a satisfactory result was achieved. Controller executes the load to rotate “FORWARD” and “REVERSE” direction depending upon the input we are giving the virtual terminal via the remote.

    The device has been designed, tested and system was able to respond to its operation. This work was built with quality wiring and contains many connections, I recommend that if failure occur, it should be troubleshoot by a qualify personnel along with the circuits diagram.
    This project was built for Educational purposes. If one wants to use it for industrial or home applications, I recommend that a hook should be attached to the casing that would allow fixing the system on the wall.
    Working on this topic as my project is a good idea and it comes at the right time. I am suggesting that this particular topic should also be given to other students both in higher and lower class.


    [1] IIT BOMBAY, TECHFEST 2010-11, PDF’s.
    [2] http://www.meadinfo.org/2009/07/design-and-fabrication-of-icengine.
    [3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-controlled_car
    [4] http://www.rcuniverse.com/forum/forum.php
    [5] http://www.rc-help.com/forum.php
    [6] http://www.rctech.net/forum/
    [7] Y. Ege , M. G. Sensoy , O. Kalender , S. Nazlibilek , H. Citak, J. Mesurement 46 (2013)
    [8] A. A. F. Nassiraei , K Ishii, Concept of Intelligent Mechanical Design for Mobile Robots J. Bion. Engg 4 (2007)
    [9] G. Yasuda, Distributed Autonomous Control of Modular Robot Systems Using Parallel
    Programming, J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 141 (2003)
    [10] S. Dearden, Develop Large-Scale Embedded Designs, Electron Des.40 (1992)

    [11] https://maker.pro/pcb/projects/remote-control-car

    [12] https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.instructables.com/How-to-Make-a-Remote-Control-Car/%3famp_page=true#cobssid=s

  • EEC 122 (electrical power I) past question and answer

    1. Explain briefly the following terms in overhead transmission line
      I. SHORT TRANSMISSION LINE: A transmission line is said to be short when the distance about 50km and the line voltage is corporative low at less than 20kv.
      II. MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINE: Transmission line is said to be medium when the distance is about 50km-150km and the voltage is greater than 20kv but less than 100kv
      III. PROTECTIVE SYSTEM: This is the act of protecting a circuit against overload and short circuit.
      With the aid of a diagram explain general construction of a 3-core cable
      I. Conductor: is the part that carries electric current
      II. PAPER Insulator: this is the insulator that surrounds the conductor, which therefore prevent current leakage.
      III. LEAD SHEATH: it is the part that protects the paper insulator
      IV. BEDDING: is used to prevent the lead sheet from rusting.
      V. ARMOURING: is the part protecting the bedding.
      VI. SERVING: is the outer part of the insulator which protect the cable from mechanical damage.
    2. State the fuse and state the components part of the fuse with a suitable diagram
      Fuse: is a short piece of metal insert in the circuit which melt when excessive current flows through it and just break itself.
      B. Define the following terms
      I. Fusing current: is the current of which the fuse element will melt or the minimum current of which the element will melt and thereby disconnect the circuit protected by it.
      II. Current rating: is the maximum current the fuse will carry without deterioration
      III. Fusing factor: is the ratio of the minimum fusing current to the current rating of the fuse element
      Fuse factor = minimum fusing current/current rating

    C. State three (3) characteristics of fuse element
    I. Low melting point e.g tin
    II. High conductivity e.g copper
    C. Low cost e.g lead

    1. Define circuit breaker and state four types of circuit breaker
      Circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can make or break a circuit manually or by remote control under normal condition
      B. State four types of circuit breaker
      I. Oil circuit breaker
      B. Gas circuit breaker
      III. Miniature circuit breaker
      IV. Air circuit breaker

    C. State four (4) differences between fuse and circuit breaker

    Fuse only work in one time and the element will be replaced
    Circuit breaker work over and over again

    Fuse time operation is about 0.02secs
    Circuit breaker time operation is about 0.5secs

    Fuse element can be tempered with when replacing
    Circuit breaker can’t be tempered with

    Fuse element are always replaced after operation
    Circuit breaker don’t need replacement

    1. List four types of insulators and sketch any one(1)
      1) Pin type insulator
      2) Suspension type insulator
      3) shackle insulator

    Write short note on insulating material
    Insulating materials are the material which do not allow electric energy to pass through them. They’re also used on electric poles for supporting and separating the conductor on the pole.
    Examples of insulating material
    I. Dry wood
    II. Glass
    III. Porcelain

    Explain the difference between feeders, distributor and service mains
    I. Feeder: is a device that serve as a protection for the transformer and distribution line.
    II. Distribution mains: This is the transmission line that comes out of the transformer usually on low tension poles and carry a voltage between 220v – 414v
    III. Service mains: This is the mains which is used to tap from the distribution mains to the end users.

    1. Define protective relay and draw a typical relay circuit
      PROTECTIVE RELAY: is a system used in protecting an electric circuit

    B) List and briefly explain four (4) requirement for power system protection.
    I. Reliable, II. Stable, III. It must be timely, IV. It must be selective
    I. Reliable: The protection system must provide it function when required to avoid damage of equipment, life and property
    II. Stable: The protection system must not react to fault in neighbouring zone and shall not react to non fault situation
    III. It must be timely: The rate at which protecting system will react to fault must be fast as possible in other to stabilise the overall power system and to reduce the damage of life and property
    IV. It must be selective: only the affected point of the power system will be disconnected
    C) State the purpose of protection system
    I. To protect equipment
    II. To protect against overload
    III. To improve system stability
    IV. To restore number of direction
    V. To protect life and property
    VI. To separate faulty section from power supply
    D) List four (4) types of protection by object
    I. Line protection
    II. Transformer protection
    III. Generator protection
    IV. Earth protection


    What is receptacle and Block diagram in Electrical graphics

    What is receptacle in electrical graphics: Receptacle is an opening of series of opening connected to a wired power source that is supposed to power electrical components and equipment.
    BLOCK DIAGRAM: Is a kind of electrical drawing that represent the principle components of a complex system in the form of block interconnected by lines that represent their relation. Block diagram is a diagram of system in which the principle parts or functions are represented by blocks connected by line that show the relationship on the blocks.

    What’s relay and DPDT

    (I)RELAY: A relay is an electrical operated switch. For example a 9v battery circuit connected to the coil, can switch 230v A.C mains circuit.

    A Relay: is an electrical operated switch. It consists of a set of input terminals for a single or multiple control signal and a set of operating contact terminals. The switch may have any number of contact terminals. The switch may have any number of contacts in multiple forms. Such as Make contact, break contact or the combination of the two.What is Graphics symbols: A graphic symbol is a visually perceptible figure with a particular meaning used to transmit information independently of language.

    (II) DPDT→ Double pole double throw. This switch can be wired upon as a reversing switch for a motor. Some DPDT have a central off position.

    SEMICONDUCTORS: semiconductor materials are partially conductor or insulator of electricity. They are material that conducts electricity but offer opposition to the flow of current.
    Give the meaning of the following

    What is a TRANSFORMER

    Transformer can be defined as a component for reducing or increasing the voltage of an alternate current
    Transformer is a device that transfer electric energy from one alternating current to one or more circuit either increasing/stepping up or reducing/stepping down voltage

    Give short definition of the following; resistor, transistor, capacitor, diode, wire, cell and motor

    1. Resistor : it is a device that obstruct the flow of electricity passing through a conductor. For example to limit a current passing through a LED, a resistor is used with capacitor in timing circuit.
    2. Transistor: Is a device that aids in amplifying current
    3. Capacitor: this are device that stores charge
    4. Diode: This is a sensitive electronic components which allows current to pass in only one direction. It has two lead namely cathode and anode.
    5. Wire: it serves as an entrance to pass electricity easily from one place to another.
    6. Cell: it supply electrical energy
    7. Motor: A transistor which convert electrical energy to kinetic energy
  • Definition, nature, importance and branches of economics

    Definition of economics

    Economics: is a science which study human behaviors as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.
    Is define as an enquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of the nation.
    Can also be defined as the study of how man and his society, choose with or without money the use of money to employ scarce productive resources where could has alternative uses to produce various commodity.
    Can also be defined as the study of mankind in his ordinary business of life.


    A. Economics is said to be a science because it uses scientific method to build theories that can help explain the behaviors of individual, group and organization.
    B. It attempt to explain economic behaviors which arises when scarce resources are explained.
    C. It’s a body of knowledge. It’s a way of thinking that emphasizes putting forward basic hypothesis and then doing control experiment and coming up with a generalisation that eventually became a law.
    D. It use qualitative and quantitative tool to understand trends. It also use statistic and mathematic theory, test hypothesis to forecast what will happen in the future.


    1. Scarcity
    2. Choice
    3. Scale of preference
    4. Opportunity cost
      A. Scarcity: simply means the resources is not enough to satisfy the need of the individual
      B. Choice: choice simply means the problem to scarcity
      C. Scale of preference: Is the systematic arrangements of wants or ends in their order of preference/priority/importance. E.g payment of salaries, building of schools, construction if roads and bridges, scholarship. The one, that is more important to the country will be done first.
      D. Opportunity cost: Refer to as the forgone alternative or real cost of the choice we’ve made.
      A. What to produce
      B. How to produce
      C. Whom to produce
      D. How the resources will be used efficiently
      A. What to produce: Society must decide what to produce and in what quantity based on the available resources.
      B. How to produce: it has to do with the method of technology. For instance we’ve labour intensive and capital intensive
      Labour intensive→ use of labour instead of machine
      Capital intensive→ use of machine instead of labour.
      Importance of studying economics
      A. Since economics is a discipline i.e a body of knowledge, it is necessary to study it as the matter of seeking knowledge for its own sake.
      B. Some understanding of economics is necessary so that we can be well informed citizen.
      C. Many of our day to day problems and discussion in the society have some economics aspect and it’s only necessary to know of this, so as to discuss intelligently the study of economics.
      D. It enables an individual to understand better relationship between him and his fellow human being in his effort to make a living.
      E. Economics provides us with skills ( tools and knowledge) needed to make rational decision in our day to day activities.
      F. It enables us to understand and appreciate various government policies when choices are to be made and it provides rational guide to firms and government in the allocation of resources.
      G. It enables us to be able to apply the principle to solve practical questions and thus avoid spending unnecessary money.
      H. Economics is a subject that can be enjoyed because it has intrinsic values.
      I. It provides job opportunities: the wide range of skills develop through studying economics especially to degree level, open up many divers job opportunities to graduates and even non-graduates.
      A. Micro economics
      B. Macro economics
      C. Positive Economics
      D. Normative economics
      A. Micro economics: This deal with the decision making of an individual. By Adam Smith
      B. Macro economics: It is concerned with the overall importance of economic, firm or house. By John maynarot Keynes
  • How to solve indices and logarithm equation on MTH 111→ Past question and answer

    CLASS: ND1 civil Engineering
    COURSE TITLE: Algebra and Element

    1. 3^x = 7; XLog3base3 = Log7base3
      Recall, Log3base3 = 1 (reason is that, Log of the same base = 1)
      X × 1 = Log7base3
      X = Log7base3 ( Find Log 7 base 3 ) [check the picture above, to get the clearer view of the question]X = 1.78
      (ii) 2^x + 2^-x = 2
      2^x + 1/2^X = 2 [ any number raise to power minus sign(-) is inverse of that number]2^x + 1/2^X = 2 ( find l.c.m)
      (4x^2 + 1)/2x =2 [ cross multiply ]4x^2 + 1 =2 × 2x
      4x^2 + 1 = 4x
      4x^2 – 4x + 1 =0
      Using factorization method,
      (4x^2 – 2x) –( 2x + 1) =0 [ hint: what’s common in the both side]2x (2x – 1) -1(2x-1) = 0
      (2x – 1)(2x-1) = 0
      (2x – 1) appears twice
      2x – 1 = 0
      2x = 1 [ divide both side by 2]X = ½(twice)
    To check if our answer is correct, put X as ½ into the real equation

    2x + 1/2X = 2
    2½ + 1/2½ = 2
    1.414 + 0.707 = 2 ( approximately)
    Therefore; the answer is correct
    b. simplify Log125
    base ⅕
    Log125base⅕ = Log125base5–¹
    Let the both be in base 5
    Log125base5 ÷ Log5–¹base5
    Log5³base5 ÷ Log5–¹base5
    3Log5base5 ÷ -1Log5base5
    3÷-1 = -3
    [check the picture above, to get the clearer view of the question]

    (II) Prove that LOGaBASEb × LOGbBASEc × LOGcBASEa = 1
    We’ll also apply the same thing to this, only that their bases will be different

    (LogaBASEa ÷ LogbBASEb) × (LogbBASEb ÷ LogcBASEc) ×( LogcBASEc ÷ LogaBASEa)
    As we know that; Log of the same base = 1

    1/1 × 1/1 × 1/1 = 1 × 1 × 1
    [check the picture above, to get the clearer view of the question]
    C. If Log2BASE5 = 0.431 and Log3BASE5 =0.682, evaluate Log4/9BASE5

    evaluate Log4/9BASE5 = Log4BASE5 ÷ Log9BASE5
    Log2²BASE5 ÷ Log3²BASE5 = 2Log2BASE5 ÷ 2Log3BASE5

    (2 × 0.431) ÷ ( 2 × 0.682)
    0.862/1.364 = 0.632( approximately)

    [check the picture above, to get the clearer view of the question]
  • Explain and list four (4) service methods that can be used to detects faults in electronics equipment

    Four service methods that can be used to detect faults in electronics equipment. ( 2 marks)


    A. Know/study mode of operation.

    B. To find out the fault.

    (2) Troubleshooting

    (3) Fault isolating

    (4) Observation test method [ 2 marks]


    (1) CIRCUIT TRACING: are split into two;

    (a) Know/study mode of operation – To be able to know the general mode of operation, sequential operation of each point, the regular noise from the machine, normal working temperature and normal range of the regulating or measuring instrument.

    (b) To find out the fault – This is always cumbersome, tiring and time wasting doing it physically.

    (2) TROUBLESHOOTING: This is a method where by fault is purposely introduce into a system in order to watch the behavior under a faulty condition. It might be by;

    (I) removal of part

    (Ii) disconnecting a link
    (III) short-circuiting some points
    (IV) connecting a live terminal to the earth.

    This method will help in knowing how to Carry out repairs or replacement of bad points. It helps to predict the symptoms and signs of a fault.

    (3) FAULT ISOLATING: A fault circuit is disconnected from the rest of the system in order to carry out repair services. If possible other parts may continue to function.

    (4) OBSERVATION TEST METHOD: consist of the following;

    (a) VISUAL— ( sense of sight): To detect loose live terminal, burnt resistor or blown fuse which are indication of overload, short circuit or earth fault.

    (b) TOUCH — feeling: By placing ones finger or palm can make one to know whether there’s a rise in temperature, vibration or humming.

    c) SMELL — To enable one to know burnt or overheating.

    d) HEARING — sound coming from a machine can enable one to suspect or know the type of fault or an unusual sound/humming.

  • A series circuit having R= 40 ohm, and inductance of 0.3H suddenly connected across a 150V supply through a switch. Find;

    A series circuit having R= 40 ohm, and inductance of 0.3H suddenly connected across a 150V supply through a switch. Find;

    I. The rate of change of current after closing the switch

    II. The steady state value of the current.

    III. The the rate of change of current I(t) = V/R – V/R . 1.

    III. The value of current after 7 milliseconds

    IV. The time for current to attain half it’s final value


    R = 40 ohm, V = 150V, L = 0.3H

    The rate of change of current I(t) = V/R – V/R . e–¹³³·³t

    1. Rate of change of current after closing the switch

    di(t)/ d(t), when t = 0

    di(t)/ d(t) = 3.75 – 3.75e–¹³³·³t

    Then differentiate,

    0 – 3.75×-133.3e–¹³³·³<⁰>

    0 – 499.88e⁰

    0 – 499.88 × 1

    0 – 499.88

    = 499.88 A/S (Amperes per second)

    2. The steady state value of the current

    Base current (Ib) = V/R = 150/40

    = 3.75A

    3. The value of current after 7 milliseconds

    7 milliseconds = 0.007seconds

    The rate of change of current (It) = 3.75 – 3.75e–¹³³·³t

    when t = 0.007seconds

    The rate of change of current (It) = 3.75 – 3.75e–¹³³·³×⁰·⁰⁰⁷ (It) = 3.75 – 3.75e–⁰·⁹³

    (It) = 3.75 – 3.75e–⁰·⁹³NOTE: e–⁰·⁹³ Means exponential of 0.93 (how to get it, press (in) in your calculator with 0.93. You’ll have 0.117)

    (It) = 3.75 – 3.75(0.117)

    (It) = 3.75 – 0.44

    (It) = 3.31A

    4.The time for current to attain half its final value

    Base current (Ib) = 3.75A,

    Ib/2 » 3.75/2 » 1.875A

    1.875 = 3.75-3.75e–¹³³·³t

    Collect like terms

    3.75e–¹³³·³t = 3.75-1.875

    3.75e–¹³³·³t = 1.875

    e–¹³³·³t = 1.875/3.75

    e–¹³³·³t = 0.5

    -133.3t = in(0.5)

    t = [-1/133.3 ] in(0.5)

    t = -7.5 × 10–³ × -0.69

    t = 5.2 × 10–³ seconds » 5.2milliSeconds. [final answer]



    The domestic television receiver is required to receive signal over a wide bandwidth and is based on the superheterodyne principle.
    The television receiver is more complicated than a broadcast radio receiver because the former is required to reproduce a video signal, synchronized scanning waveform for the CRT and sound signal


    1) FOCUS ADJUSTMENT: The focus adjustment is the electron beam. The electron beam must be focused to small ports/spot light on the screen usually focus is sharp on the center area of a tube.
    FUNCTION: Older picture used in magnetic focusing with a focused signal on the neck of the tube behind the deflection yoke.

    2) ELECTROSTATIC FOCUSING: Is omitted from a cathode tends to diverge because they repel each other. However the electron can be forced to converge to a point by an electric or to a magnetic field. So the voltage focused in the beam to a spot is called a crossed point beyond the control grid.



    1. Log on to the host computer as Administrator or as owner.
    2. Click start, and then click control panel.
    3. Click Network and internet connections then Click Network connections
    4. Right-click the connections that you use to connect to the internet. For example, if you connect to the internet by using a modem, right-click the connections that you want under dial-up
    5. Click properties and Click the advanced tab.
    6. Under internet connections sharing, select the, allow other network users to connect through this computer’s internet connections check box.
    7. If you’re sharing a dial-up internet connections, select the establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the internet check box. Ok f you want to permit your computer to automatically connect to the internet
    8. click ok. You receive the following messages saying are you sure you want to enable internet connection sharing? CLICK YES

    1 PIN TYPE INSULATOR: Are made in piece up to 25KV and above for up to 50KV only. You can add up the voltage by adding one more piece, they become uneconomical for higher voltage.

    2. SUSPENSION TYPE INSULATOR: Are made in form of disc and a number of them used in a flexible string for the voltage range desires with the conductor being attached to the lower end for 400KV lines, 19 discs of overall length 3.84m are used.

    3 STRAIN TYPE INSULATOR: Are obtained often a string of suspension insulator is used in a horizontal position. They are mainly used in line terminal and crossed end roads.

    B) State with reason, which of the insulator in (Q4a) is suitable for high voltage (HV) lines


    because they’re used for line terminals and transmission lines and for higher voltages >11kv and much higher
  • Integration by parts – formula, proof, derivation, examples and FAQs


    Integration by parts is used to integrate the product of two or more functions. The two functions to be integrated f(x) and g(x) are of the form

    f(x).g(x). Thus, it can be called a product rule of integration. Among the two functions, the first function f(x) is selected such that its derivative formula exists, and the second function g(x) is chosen such that an integral of such a function exists.


    The proof of integration by parts can be obtained from the formula of the derivative of the product of two functions. For the two functions f(x) and g(x), the derivative of the product of these two functions is equal to the sum of the derivatives of the first functions multiplied with the second function, and the derivative of the second function multiplied by the first function.

    Let us derive the integration by parts formula using the product rule of differentiation. Consider two functions u and v. Let their product be y. i.e., y = uv. Applying the product rule of differentiation, we get

    d/dx (uv) = u (dv/dx) + v (du/dx)

    We will rearrange the terms here.

    u (dv/dx) = d/dx (uv) – v (du/dx)

    Integrating on both sides with respect to x,

    ∫ u (dv/dx) (dx) = ∫ d/dx (uv) dx – ∫ v (du/dx) dx

    By cancelling the terms,

    ∫ u dv = uv – ∫ v du

    Hence the integration by parts formula is derived.

    Visualizing Integration by Parts

    Applications Of Integration By Parts
    The application of this formula for integration by parts is for functions or expressions for which the formulas of integration do not exist. Here we try to include this formula of integration by parts and try to derive the integral. For logarithmic functions and for inverse trigonometry functions there are no integral answers. Let us try to solve and find the integration of log x and tan-1x.

    Integration of Logarithmic Function
    ∫ logx.dx = ∫ logx.1.dx

    = logx. ∫1.dx – ∫ ((logx)’.∫ 1.dx).dx

    =logx.x -∫ (1/x .x).dx

    =xlogx – ∫ 1.dx

    =x logx – x + C

    Integration of Inverse Trigonometric Function
    ∫ tan-1x.dx = ∫tan-1x.1.dx

    = tan-1x.∫1.dx – ∫((tan-1x)’.∫ 1.dx).dx

    = tan-1x. x – ∫(1/(1 + x2).x).dx

    = x. tan-1x – ∫ 2x/(2(1 + x2)).dx

    = x. tan-1x – ½.log(1 + x2) + C

    Formulas Related to Integration by Parts

    The following formulas have been derived from the integration by parts formula and are helpful in the process of integrations of various algebraic expressions.

    ∫ ex(f(x) + f'(x)).dx = exf(x) + C
    ∫√(x2 + a2).dx = ½ . x.√(x2 + a2)+ a2/2. log|x + √(x2 + a2)| C
    ∫√(x2 – a2).dx =½ . x.√(x2 – a2) – a2/2. log|x +√(x2 – a2) | C
    ∫√(a2 – x2).dx = ½ . x.√(a2 – x2) + a2/2. sin-1 x/a + C

    Find ∫xe-x dx

    Integrating by parts (with v = x and du/dx = e-x), we get:

    -xe-x – ∫-e-x dx (since ∫e-x dx = -e-x)

    = -xe-x – e-x + constant

    We can also sometimes use integration by parts when we want to integrate a function that cannot be split into the product of two things. The trick we use in such circumstances is to multiply by 1 and take du/dx = 1.


    Find ∫ ln x dx

    To integrate this, we use a trick, rewrite the integrand (the expression we are integrating) as 1.lnx . We then let v = ln x and du/dx = 1 .

    Hence ∫ ln x dx = x ln x – ∫ x (1/x) dx
    = x lnx – ∫ dx
    = x lnx – x + constant
    Also check https://revisionmaths.com/advanced-level-maths-revision/pure-maths/calculus/integration-part

    Solved Examples On Integration By Parts

    Example 1: Find the integral of x2ex by using the integration by parts formula.


    Using LIATE, u = x2 and dv = ex dx.

    Then, du = 2x dx, v = ∫ ex dx = ex.

    Using one of the integration by parts formulas,

    ∫ u dv = uv – ∫ v du

    ∫ x2 ex dx = x2 ex – ∫ ex (2x) dx

    = x2 ex – 2 ∫ x ex dx

    Applying integration by parts formula again to evaluate ∫ x ex dx,

    ∫ x2 ex dx = x2 ex – 2 (x ex – ∫ ex dx) = x2 ex – 2 x ex + 2 ex + C

    = ex (x2- 2 x + 2)+ C

    Answer: ∫ x2 ex dx = = ex (x2- 2 x + 2)+ C

    Example 2: Find the integral of x sin2x, by using integration by parts formula.


    To find the integration of the given expression we use the integration by parts formula: ∫ uv.dx = u∫ v.dx -∫( u’ ∫ v.dx).dx

    Here u = x, and v = Sin2x

    ∫x sin2x. dx

    =x∫sin2xdx – d/dx. x.∫ sin2xdx. dx

    =x. -cos2x/2 – ∫(1.-cos2x/2). dx

    =-cos2x/2. dx + 1/2 cos2xdx

    =-xcos2x/2 + sin2x/4 + C

    Answer: Thus ∫x sin2x dx = -x cos2x/2 +sin 2x/4+ C

    Example 3: Evaluate the integral ∫ x ln x dx using integration by parts.


    First Method:

    Using LIATE, u = ln x and v = x.

    Using one of the formulas of integration by parts,

    ∫ uv dx = u ∫ v dx – ∫ (u’ ∫ v dx) dx

    ∫ x ln x dx = ln x ∫ x dx – ∫ (1/x) (∫ x dx) dxU

    = ln x (x2/2) – ∫ (1/x) (x2/2) dx

    = (x2 ln x)/2 – (1/2) ∫ x dx

    = (x2 ln x) / 2 – (1/2) (x2/2) + C

    = (x2 ln x) /2 – (x2 / 4) + C

    =(x2/4)(2 ln x -1) + C

    Second Method:

    Using LIATE, u = ln x and dv = x dx.

    Then du = (1/x) dx and v = ∫ x dx = x2/2

    Using one of the formulas of integration by parts,

    ∫ u dv = uv – ∫ v du

    ∫ x ln x dx = ln x (x2/2) – ∫ (x2/2) (1/x) dx

    = (x2 ln x)/2 – (1/2) ∫ x dx

    = (x2 ln x) / 2 – (1/2) (x2/2) + C

    = (x2 ln x) /2 – (x2 / 4) + C

    = (x2/4)(2 ln x -1) + C

    Practice Questions on Integration by Parts

    Q 1. Find ∫ sin-1x. dx using integration by parts.

    x sin-1x -√(x2 -1 )+ C.
    x sin, -1, x -√(x, 2, -1, , )+ C.

    x sin-1x + √(1-x2) + C.
    x sin, -1, x + √(1-x, 2, ) + C.

    x sin-1x -√(1-x2) + C.
    x sin, -1, x -√(1-x, 2, ) + C.

    x sin-1x -√(x2 -1 ) + C.
    x sin, -1, x -√(x, 2, -1, , ) + C.
    Q 2. For which of the following integral expressions we need to apply Integration by Parts formula.

    ∫ log sinx dx
    ∫ log sinx dx

    ∫ x ex . dx
    ∫ x e, x , . dx

    ∫ cosec2 x. dx
    ∫ cosec, 2 , x. dx

    ∫ tan x. dx
    ∫ tan x. dx

  • Calculate the power generated by a station which has a head of 300m, a flow rate of 63000kg/s and an overall efficiency of 75% (4 marks)

    acceleration due to gravity= 9.81m/s2

    Head= 300m

    Efficiency rate= 75%

    Velocity= 63000kg/s

    P= ghrv

    P = acceleration due to gravity × Head × Efficiency rate × Velocity

    P = 9.81 × 300 ×

     × 63000


         = 140MN

  • List four (4) parameters that determine the performance of a transmission line.


    The four parameters that determine the performance of a transmission line is conductance, resistance, inductance and capacitance.

    1. RESISTANCE: Resistance is stated in ohms per meter length of a line and its represent the imperfection of a line. In other words, it obstruct or resist the flow of  current in a circuit. It’s measured in ohms [Ω]
    2. CAPACITANCE: It is the ratio of the charge on one plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two plates. Its measured in farads [F]. Or it can be define as the ability of a capacitor to store charge.
    1. INDUCTANCE: Is a property in which an inductor, exhibit an opposition to the current flowing through it. Or it can be define as the process in which an E.M.F is produce to oppose the current flowing through it. It’s measured in henry [H]
    2. CONDUCTANCE:  It is an ability of an element to conduct electric current, it is measured in siemens[S]
  • Advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric energy and nuclear power energy


    list five (3) advantages and three (3) disadvantages of a hydro power plant.

    (1) Renewable: hydro-electric energy is renewable, that means hydro-electric energy can be generated again after been used up.

    However, there’s only a limited number of suitable reservoirs where hydro-electric power plants can be built and even less places where such projects are profitable.
    Pollution free: it is clean and good. There is no pollution at all.

    (2) Reliable: it is very reliable because it has sufficient energy. A house, shop or industry can use once there is sufficient water in the dam.

    (3) Flexible: hydro-electric power can be tapped or taken to different households or without difficulty and adjusting water flow and output of electricity is easy.
    Safe: compared to among others, fossil fuel and nuclear energy, hydro-electricity is much safer.

    (1) It involves high capital cost due to construction of dam.
    (2) There is uncertainty about the availability of huge amount of water due to dependence on weather condition.
    (3) Skilled and experienced hands are required to build the plant.
    (4) It requires high cost of transmission lines as the plants is located in hilly areas which are far away from the consumer.

    Nuclear power station

    A generating station in which nuclear energy is converted into electrical energy is known as a nuclear power station.
    Advantages of nuclear power station.
    Mention seven (7)
    (1) It ensures reliability of operation.

    (2) There are large deposits of nuclear fuels that can ensure the continuity of electrical energy for thousands of years are available all over the world.

    (3) It can be located near the load centers because it does not require large quantities of water and need not be near coal mines. And therefore, the cost of primary distribution is reduced.

    (4) This type of plant is very economical for producing bulk electric power.

    (5) It has low running charges as a small amount of fuel is used for producing bulk electrical power.

    (6) A nuclear power requires less space as compared to any other type of power station.

    (7) The amount of fuel required is small.
    (1) The fission by-products are generally radioactive and may cause a dangerous amount of radioactive pollution.

    (2) The erection and commissioning of the plant requires greater technical know-how.

    (3)The capital cost on a nuclear plant is very high as compared to other type of plants.

    (4) The fuel used is cost and is difficult to renew/recover.

  • Different types of Network and their meaning in computer Network


    WAN]:Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone line (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite link, and data packet carrier services. It can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances.


    MAN consists of a computer network across an entire city college campus or small region. A MAN is larger than a LAN. Depending on the configuration, this type of network can cover an area from miles to tens of miles. A MAN is often used to convert several LANs together to form a bigger network. It is specifically designed for security purpose.


    [VPN]: VPN is a technology that allows a network administrator to create a secure connection over a loss-secure network between computer and the internet. It protects information privacy by allowing the administrator to anonymously appear to be in any network. A VPN is beneficial because it guarantees an appropriate level of security and privacy to the connected systems. This is extremely useful when the existing network infrastructure alone cannot support it.

  • What is digital signal?

    What is signal

    Signals is a physical quantity or an electrical waveform that carries information. It can also be define as a pattern, or changes that convey information from a source to a destination. The purpose of a signal is to transmit this information timely and accurately. Signal is a physical and electrical representation of information that is used to transmit data in various communication system.

    Type of signal

    1. Analog signals: They are continuous waveforms that vary in time and amplitude
    2. Digital signals: They are not continuous wave but are discrete in nature i.e their values are typically binary digits (bit) a “0” and a “1”

    Characteristics/properties of signals

    1. Amplitude: These refers to the magnitude or strength of the signals
    2. Frequency: is the number of cycles or oscillation that occurs within a given time period. Measured in hertz (Hz)
    3. Phase: Refers to the relative positioning or timing of a signal waveform with respect to a reference
    4. Duration: Represent the length of time that a signal persist or exist.
    5. Periodicity: Refers to whether a signal exhibits a repetitive pattern or not.
    6. Symmetry: These describe the balance or distribution of a signal waveform
    7. Bandwidth: it refers to the range of frequency that signal occupies or occupies for transmission
    8. Energy and power: are measures of the total or average amount of signal energy overtime. Energy is related to the finite duration of a signal while power is the energy per unit time

    Example of analog signals

    1. Audio signal: In electronics, an audio signal generator is a piece of electronic test equipment that generates electrical signals in the audio frequency range. These signals are usually created using a voltage-controlled oscillator or a pulse train and then route to an amplifier before being sent to the loudspeakers, whose output makes up the desired sound.
    2. Electromagnetic waves: The electromagnetic waves consist of both electric and magnetic fields. Electromagnetic waves can travel long distances in space. The electromagnetic signals are also called radio frequency (RF) waves
    3. Voltage signal: a voltage signal refers to an electrical signal that varies in voltage, typically measured in volts. Voltage signals are often used to represent analog data such as sound, temperature, and light intensity

    Application of analog signals ( where we can find it)

    1. Analog telephone
    2. AM/FM radio
    3. Television broadcasting

    Note: that analog signals are susceptible (likely or affected) to noise and distortion during transmission, which can degrade the quantity of the received signal.

    Advantages of digital signals

    1. Immunity to noise ( insusceptible)
    2. Better signal quantity
    3. Efficient use of bandwidth

    Digital Modulation

    It is the whole process of modifying a digital signal to enable it to be transmitted over a communication channel.

    Digital modulation techniques

    1. Amplitude shift keying (ASK): In ASK the amplitude of the common signal varied to represent digital “1s” and “0s
    2. Frequency shift keying (FSK): It involves shifting the frequency of the carrier signal between two or more predefine frequencies to represent different digital symbols. For example, if we have two sine waves with different frequencies but equal amplitudes, they would be indistinguishable on an oscilloscope unless we normalized their amplitudes first. If you multiply each frequency by its corresponding normalized amplitude measurement, you can use frequency as an independent variable.
    3. Phase shift keying (PSK): It changes the phase of the carrier signals to represents digital symbols ( 00, 900, 1800, 2900 )
    4. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM): Is a complex modulation scheme that combines amplitude and phase modulation. (QAM represents digital data in varying both the amplitude and phase of the carrier)
    5. Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK): is a modulation scheme that allows one symbol to transfer two bits of data. There are four possible two-bit numbers (00, 01, 10, 11), and consequently we need four phase offsets. Again, we want maximum separation between the phase options, which in this case is 90°
    6. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM): Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) takes a digital information signal with bit rate Rb, maps n-bit words on to M = 2n symbols (each symbol being a complex number representing the amplitude and phase of an M-ary modulation scheme), splits the resulting symbol stream (rate Rs = Rb/n) into N parallel streams (each with rate ROFDM = Rs/N) and modulates each stream onto one of N different carriers [12]. The N frequencies chosen for the carriers are such that the carriers are mutually orthogonal over one OFDM symbol period, TOFDM = 1/ROFDM, allowing independent recovery of each parallel information stream.

    Digital modulation principle

    1. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM): Converts a discrete time signal into a variable amplitude continuous time signal that is good for high-speed wired communication system.
    2. Pulse position modulation (PPM): Is a modulation method that only makes every pulse in the carrier pulse sequence change within time but without changing shape and amplitude of pulse signal.
    3. Pulse Code modulation (PCM): is a digital scheme for transmitting analog data. It converts an analog signal into digital form. Using PCM, it is possible to digitize all forms of analog data, including full-motion video, voice, music, telemetry, etc.
    4. Pulse Width modulation (PWM): is a modulation technique that generates variable-width pulses to represent the amplitude of an analog input signal. The output switching transistor is on more of the time for a high-amplitude signal and off more of the time for a low-amplitude signal.
  • Drafting & Design Question and Answer in Engineering Course

    This entails a quick Question & Answer summary of what Drafting and design course is all about in electrical engineering. As a student who’s interested in Drafting and design course, it’s advisable you go through this.

    1. List three(3) types of connection diagram in an electrical design

    • Block diagram
    • Wiring diagram
    • Schematic diagram

    Write short note on each types of connection diagram

    • Block diagram: is a symbolic representation of a working process, production line or even it can be used to represent a system of government activities.
    • Schematic diagram: it is a standard name used for a circuit diagram. It can be defined as a diagram that utilizes a circuit symbol to show the interconnection and function of a component that makes up of a circuit diagram of a system.
    • A wiring diagram: shows the relative layout of the components and the wire connections between them. This type of diagram shows the physical relation of all devices in the system, the conductor terminations between these devices, and are commonly used in motor control installations

    B. state four(4) classification of lighting scheme

    • Direct lighting scheme
    • Indirect lighting scheme
    • Semi-direct lighting scheme
    • Semi-indirect lighting scheme
    • Direct lighting schemes: By this method most of the lighting scheme is made available on the working surface and very few percent is wasted. Light shining onto an object is called direct lighting. It determines the color and quantity of light that reaches a surface from a light source, but ignores all light that may arrive at the surface from any other sources, such as after reflection or refraction.
    • Indirect lighting scheme: The light does not reach the working surface directly.  Uses one or more fixtures to aim light onto the ceiling and upper walls, which act as reflectors and distribute the light evenly throughout the room. Indirect lighting is a form of ambient lighting.
    • Semi-direct lighting scheme: In this scheme about 60 to 90% of total light flux is made to fall on the working surface and 10 to 40% is allowed to fall on the ceilings and walls. This is achieved by providing semi-direct reflectors. Such a scheme is best suited to rooms having bigger height
    • Semi-indirect lighting scheme: In this system 60 to 90% of the total light flux is diverted to fall on the ceiling from where the light is directed on the working surface by diffused reflection. Only 30 to 40% flux reaches the working surface.

    C. Write short notes on each of the following; cosine law, inverse square law, maintenance factor and diversity factor.

    • Cosine law: the illumination on the surface is proportional to the cosine of the angle X between the direction of the incident light and the normal to the surface.
    • Inverse square law: this illumination at a point for the surface produced by light from the point of source was inversely to the square of the point of source.
    • Maintenance factor: it refers to the loss of light that occurs over time and is also known as loss factor. During the operating time of light sources, it can be seen as slight decrease of light output. in other words it is called lumen
    • Diversity factor: this is the ratio of the sum of individual demand of the various sub-division of the system to the maximum demand of the whole system under consideration.

    2. Enumerate the difference between switch gear and distribution switch board

    Switch gear

    • Switch gears protect equipment from electrical hazards or failure due to short circuit.
    • Switch gear finds their use in powering transformers lines, generators and power networks.
    • Switch gears is designed to handle voltages that can reach 350KV.
    • Switch gears come with automatic features and come with manual control during emergency.
    • Switch gear has switching device that are required for low to medium-voltage circuits.

    Switch board

    • They are designed to handle lower voltages that are generally less than 60 volts
    • Switch boards don’t have any automatic features and are placed to display the amount of power consumed by individual circuits.
    • They consists of panel where switches, buses and electrical control devices have been mounted on the front or back end
    • They are only used to distribute power to multiple sources and transmit them to individual loads, transformers, panel boards and control equipment.
    • They have fixed mount circuit breakers that are connected directly to bus bar.

    B. State four(4) factors to be considered when selecting a consumer unit for an installation.

    • Number of circuits
    • Type of circuits
    • Brand and model
    • Price

    C. Explain briefly the difference between domestic premises and non-domestic premises and state the types of supplies which are taken to each of the premises stated above

    Domestic premises are residential wiring that run through walls in a single phase design and it uses less voltage due to lower electrical load.

    Non-domestic premises are industrial wiring that uses a three-phase design to create higher output to power higher voltage equipment and multiple systems.

    Note: Domestic premises make use of 230/240V while non-domestic premises make use of 11/33KV

    3. Explain briefly the term stroboscopic effect on rotating electrical equipment.

    Stroboscopic effect is the phenomenon which makes moving objects like fan blades to appear to be stand still and a wave of the hand to appear as if it occured in a series of jump.

    State two(2) methods to be adopted so as to reduce stroboscopic effect

    1. Using three lambs on the separate phase of 3-phase supply: when three(3) phase supply is used in the industry the adjacent fluorescent lamps should be fed with different phases so that the zero crossing of the two lambs will not be the same.
    2. Reducing the level of TLMs: design of lighting equipment to reduce the TLMs of the light sources is typically a trade off for other product properties and generally increases cost and size, shortens lifetime or lower energy efficiency.
  • Things to know in Electrical Machine Course (EEC 323)

    What are the different special purpose of transformer?

    You can use transformer as;

    1. Regulating transformers
    2. Converter transformer
    3. Rectifier transformer
    4. Mining transformer
    5. Welding transformer

    What is reactor?

    Reactors are equipment of transformer family. Reactors are used in the power system(network) for current limiting and for compensation of reactive power.

    Types of reactors

    1. Series reactor: are necessary for limiting short-circuit currents, for limiting rush currents while switching-in for limiting current surges with fluctuating loads, for smoothing the current wavesform, etc.
    2. Shunt reactor: are necessary for shunt harmonic filter and for providing reactive power compensation for long AC lines.

    What is transformer?

    Transformer is a static electrical equipment which transformer are electrical power from one voltage to another voltage at some frequency by electromagnetic induction. The transformer design, manufacturing and testing techniques have advanced with following objectives;

    • High efficiency
    • Low material cost, smaller size
    • High reliability, long life, low maintenance.
    • Low noise
    • To conform to relevant specifications.

    Important advances in power transformer technologies includes;

    1. Improved magnetic materials for core
    • Lower losses
    • Reduced size of core

    2. Improved method of construction of core

    • Elimination of core bolts
    • Use of mired joint between laminations of leg and yoke.

    3. Improved conductors and conductor insulators: multiple wire transposed conductors are now used, thereby the eddy current losses and skin effects are reduced.

    4. Reduction in Noise: use of superior magnetic sheet steel, improved method construction of core and tank.

    5. Improved design of windings and insulating system: The distribution of electrical stresses between winding and core, windings, turns of a winding, coils of a winding depends on electromagnetic phenomena,.

    Types of transformer

    1. Core type transformer: A transformer on which the windings surrounded the limbs of the core.
    2. Shell type transformer: A transformer in which the core surrounds major portion of the windings.

    Principle of operation of transformer

    A transformer has two or more separate winding placed on a common magnetic core. It works on induction principle. The primary winding is supplied with alternating current of supply frequency. Thereby alternating magnetic flux of the same frequency is produced in the magnetic core.

    What is testing in transformer?

    Testing: is to ensure good health of transformer and trouble-free service

    Kinds of test on a transformer

    1. Acceptance test: validates that your product is built and operating following design specifications and regulations. For transformers, it’s the process of testing to confirm that it meets all elements of the international standard
    2. Type test: type test prove the capabilities and guaranteed ratings
    3. Routine test: are conducted to verify that the manufactured and assembling are satisfactory
    4. Special test: are conducted in testing laboratory or at site to investigate certain phenomena.
    5. Site test: are carried out after complete installation to confirm that there are no transit damages and installation is satisfactory.
    6. Quality checks test: these are conducted on components, sub-assembling and complete assembly to confirm that the quality is satisfactory and there are no material/manufacturing defects.

    What is a substation

    A substation is an assemblage of electrical apparatus. Transformer are necessary in a sub-station for stepping-up and stepping-down of voltage. Besides transformers, substations has several other electrical equipment’s including bus-bars, circuit breaker, isolators, surge arrestors, etc.

    1. Busbars: Incoming and outgoing circuits connected to bus-bars.
    2. Circuit breakers: Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions.
    3. Insulators: Disconnection under no-load condition for safety, isolation and maintenance
    4. Earthing switch: To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth.
    5. Current transformer: To step-down current for measurement, control and protection.
  • Four Reasons Why Student of Logic are more Correct in Reasoning? | English Studies


    • A student of logic is more likely to acquire methods for testing the correctness of reasoning. How true is this statement? Give four convincing reasons for your response.

    Student of logic are more correct in reasoning because they make use of abductive, inductive, deductive and reasoning by analogy to bring out fact. 4 Convincing Reasons Why Student of Logic are more Correct in Reasoning?


    1. Deductive Reasoning: This is a thinking process in which one argues from a universal principle or statement to specific or particular statement using prescribed rules. It is a system of organizing know facts to arrive at a conclusion. This is done through a series of statement which could be categorized into three parts called syllogism viz: a major premise, a minor premise and a middle premise or conclusion. The major premise denotes an attribute or a group attribute which must be true to be applicable. The minor premise is a proposition that may affirm or negate the attribute of the major premise while inference while inference is made on relationship between the premise.

    e.g.      major premise           –                             all insect have six legs

                 minor premise          –                             the ant has six legs

                 conclusion                 –                              therefore the ant is an insect.

    e.g.     major premise            –                             all lecturers are thief

                minor premise           –                             Danjuma is a lecturers

               conclusion                   –                             Danjuma is a thief

    e.g.     major premise            –                             Whenever there is smoke, there is fire.

               minor premise             –                             There is smoke in this kitchen.

               conclusion                     –                            Therefore there is fire in this kitchen

    In the foregoing argument, it should be asserted that the conclusion follows with strict necessity from the earlies proposition or premise. It would be inconsistent or self contradictory to assert the premise but deny the conclusion. Therefore, deductive reasoning deals with the theory of demonstrative argument whose premises necessitate their conclusion. It is the systematic presentation of certain relations of deducibility or implication which hold among member of a group of propositions when and because the member of such a group collectively exhibit certain structural features.

    e.g.         whenever there is smoke, there is fire

                   there is smoke in this kitchen

                   therefore there is fire in this kitchen

    Electrical phenomena are accompanied by magnetic disturbances. Lightening is an electrical phenomenon. Therefore lightning is accompanied by magnetic disturbances. Notice that argument must contain at least two propositions, a conclusion plus one premise or more. It is not a rule that each proposition must be in sentence from. In fast the whole argument may be expressed in one sentence.

    e.g. the following statement by Aristotle.

    In a democracy the poor have more power than the rich, because there are more of them and the will of the majority is supreme.

    Major premise           –             the will of the majority is supreme

    Minor premise           –             there are more of the poor than the rich in a democracy

    Conclusion                  –             therefore, in a democracy the poor have more power than the rich.

    2. Inductive Reasoning: Inductive reasoning is the reverse of deductive reasoning where the argumentation reasons from specific instances to the general. In inductive reasoning conclusion is reached by observing evidence such as facts, statistics and examples and generalizing from the examples to the whole class generalization is a probability. The more evidence we adduce in support of the conclusion, the more true or probability the conclusion will be Inductive conclusion can be absolute only when the group on phenomena about which they assert is small and hence easily coverable.

    e.g. the first vulture is black

           the second vulture is black

           the third vulture is black

           probably all vultures are black

    3. Abductive Reasoning: Abductive reasoning is making a probable conclusion from what you know if you see an abandoned bowl of hot soup on the table you can use abduction to conclude the owner of the soup is likely returning soon

    In Abductive reasoning, the major premise is evident, but the minor premise is not and therefore the conclusion are only probable for example, if you have a half-eaten sandwich your home, you might use probability to reason that your teenage son made the sandwich, realized he was late for work, and abandoned it before he could finish it.

    4. Reasoning by analog: Analogical reasoning relies on given statement and similar consequences from past experiences e.g.  A shark in the ocean behaves like a wolf in the forest. Similar behavior is to be expected in both cases because of the animals’ similarity as beast of prey

    To argue by analogy is to argue that because two things are similar, what is true of one is also true of the other. Such argument are called analogical argument or argument by analogy.

    e.g.1.  There might be like on Europa because it has an atmosphere that contains oxygen just like the earth

          2. she’s as blind as a bat

          3. Finding that lost dog will be like finding a needle in a haystack

          4. you have to be as busy as a bee to got a good grades in high school.

  • Federal Poly Nassarawa HND/ND Admission List 2023/2024

    Federal Poly Nassarawa has started giving admission to HND/ND student

    federal polytechnic nassarawa logo
    fpn school logo

    This is to inform all the aspirants (both HND and ND full-time) of the Federal Polytechnic of Nassarawa (FPN) that the management of the institution has officially started giving Provisional Admission for 2023/2024 academic session.

    Federal Polytechnic Nassarawa has officially released its Higher National Diploma (HND) and  National Diploma (ND) full-time provisional admission list for the 2023/2024 academic session. You can view the list via their website, candidate can check Admission Status via their portal using either Application number or Jamb Registration number for ND and HND aspirants respectively. Congratulations to the successful applicants.


    Have you registered for 2023/2024 academic session in the Federal Poly Nassarawa quickly jump to the steps below to know how you can check your admission status yourself

    STEP ONE: Click the link fpn.edu.ng/students/ (it will take some seconds to validate your connection security)

    STEP TWO: Click the box above and select ‘CHECK ADMISSION STATUS’

    STEP THREE: Check admission status using either Application number or Jamb Registration number for ND and HND aspirants respectively. Congratulations to the successful applicants.

    Once you’ve entered your Application number or REG number, all you need to do is click on the ‘CHECK’ button. Within moment your admission status will be displayed on the screen. Cheers to greatness for all those who’ve secured a position in the Federal Poly Nassarawa Admission list for 2023/2024. This achievement is a testament to your determination and efforts. Embrace this fresh academic journey with zeal and vigour!

    Documents to be submitted at the Main Admin Building

    • State of origin
    • Date of birth
    • O level result ( Either WAEC or NECO with a valid scratch card)
    • JAMB results ( applicable for ND student only) or A LEVEL result (applicable for HND new intake)
    • IT LETTER ( for HND students only)
    • School fees print out ( you can print out from the school portal)
    • Admission print out ( you can print out from the school portal)
    • FORM B print out ( you can print out from the school portal)
  • Is UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA Still Giving Out Admission For 2023/2024

    Is university of Abuja still giving out admission?

    The answer is NO, the admission processes this year has ended successfully. Don’t let anyone deceive you of late admission and if you have been given congratulation!! UNIABUJA Admitted more New Students, Officially Closed 2023/2024 Admission Process. Congratulations to those Admitted Students.

    No definite number but fewer than 6,000 more students cutting across several programmes and faculties have been admitted to the University for the 2023/2024 academic session.

    Is admission still out for 2023/2024 aspirants that have not gotten admission yet
    Admission News 2023 /2024 aspirants?

    The school wishes to congratulate all those of you who were successfully admitted to the great University of Abuja. We urge you to seize the vast opportunity provided by the University to prepare yourselves for the tasks ahead.

    For those who could not secure admission this year, we ask you for patience and perseverance and advise that you try again next time. University of Abuja remains your best choice in the pursuit of academic excellence


    Good day to you all, I’ll be telling you things about the aforementioned topic but I’ll try to make it brief.
    The admission will come in starting from Merit then downwards. In this phase, those with high Jamb scores and strong O’level results for the course they applied for, will see their admissions first before any other applicants. Mind you, the total number of applicants for each course will determine how sure your admission will be for that course, because all departments have their respective admission quotas, i.e the total amount of applicants they can admit into that department. As for now, Political Science has the highest admission quota but I won’t tell you the total amount of students we do admit into it.

    When is 2023/2024 Application Date?

    For those anticipating to enter university of abuja next year, I will be revealing our 2023/2024 application date soon! so stay tune to this blog. To our 2024 Prospective Aspirants, I’m using this medium to let you know that we will be here for you as we’ve always been there for the previous sets.

    JAMB has recently set the benchmark for Tertiary Institutions such like Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education. The benchmark set for Universities is pegged at 140 and above.

    The “above” there is where University of Abuja falls in, as UniAbuja won’t accept any score less than 180




    Free write-up project on impact of organizational culture on employee wellbeing among bankers in ibadan ( case study of guarantee trust bank, awolowo bodija, ibadan). The research was done by banking and finance final year student.


    1.1 Background of the Study
    The perception towards Organizational culture has become more significant from early 1980s. Organisational Culture mainly includes the values, opinions and attitudes of a company. Culture refers to how the things are undertaken within different Organisation (Nazir & Umar, 2016). It is also famous that the culture of the Organisation is mainly focuses with the direction of learning. Thus, it is very much essential to recognise the aspects of the culture of an Organisation before any change is going to be implemented. It has been seen that the hidden rules and expectations of behaviour in an Organisation where the rules are not officially considered, employees know what is anticipated from them. It is the responsibility of the management to make decisions on policy about the Organisation culture (Hillary,2018).

    Workplaces are important participants in society. Besides their economic importance, they influence several factors at an individual, community and society level. People spend most of their active time working (Aamondt, 2012); suitable physical, and social work environments, protective working conditions ensure adequate employee motivation and performance (Lamb et al., 2016; Renee, 2008), and the return on investments in health and safety at work is more than twice as much as the invested amount. These findings motivate modern companies to invest in employees’ well-being. This motivation is particularly pronounced in industries such as information technology (IT) where the retention, motivation and satisfaction of employees with expertise and experience are key factors in long-term business success.

    The World Health Organisation defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community” (WHO, 2018). Conditions at the workplace such as basic hygiene factors (Herzberg, 2004), the quality of communication, information flow, social support, and having regard for individual abilities are closely related to the extent to which employees’ experience that their workplaces meet the criteria set in the above definition. Mental well-being poses one of the greatest challenges to societies in the 21st century. The European Union established priority areas in mental health and well-being in 2008, one of which areas is prevention and intervention at the workplace (European Commission, 2008).

    Employee well-being is a multifaceted and fluid concept whose understanding largely varies across Organisation and countries. Some of the factors that previous studies consistently found to be associated with workplace-related and personal wellbeing are value-based working environment and leadership style, open communication and dialogue, teamwork and cooperation, clear and coordinated objectives, flexibility, balance between business and personal life, and fair salary and benefits (Kowalski et al, 2010).A low level of perceived work- related stress, a high level of Organisational identification, and a low level of turnover intention are among the most frequently applied criteria for employee well-being in the European Union (Kiss et al., 2018). The present study also used these measures as the indicators of employee well-being.

    Since the disproportionate mortality and comorbidity rates in Hungary are primarily attributed by several authors to chronic stress (Kopp et al., 2004, 2006). Indices of mental and physical well-being and mortality rates are worse than would be predicted by socio-economic factors. According to the 2015 Eurostat survey, the so-called Central-Eastern European health paradox is still observable. Several international research teams point out that chronic stress and mental or behavioural factors have essential importance in this phenomenon (Kopp et al., 2007). The related studies also draw attention to the direct importance of new forms of employment widespread in developed societies (WHO), and particularly to the importance of psychosocial factors. People are exposed to these effects in smaller and larger communities where they spend most of their time, and the workplace has primary importance in this respect.

    In sum, work-related stress is a form of stress to which individuals are exposed at the Organisation or during work, and which impairs their quality of life and often leads to severe diseases or tragedies. There are diverse sources of stress at the workplace such as time pressure, lack of autonomy, role ambiguity, conflicts in cooperation, lack of supervisor’s support, lack of appreciation, and perceived instability and unpredictability of one’s employment with an Organisation, that is, a high level of perceived job insecurity (Probst & Lowler, 2006). Findings reported by Kivimäki and Siegrist (2016) show that work-related stress may increase the risk and symptoms of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis over time.

    A significant relationship between job insecurity and coronary heart disease was revealed in a cohort study by Ferrie and colleagues (2013). In a similar vein, a comprehensive study by Kiss, Polonyi and Imrek (2018) points out the effects of chronic stress on physical and mental health and its relationship with the burnout syndrome. It is also worth considering the economic side of the problem, that is, the financial costs of an employee’s health impairment.

    Workplace-related experiences of members of an organisation are distilled into their perceived organisational culture. organisational culture is a cohesive social force that supports internal integration and adaptation to the external environment (Daft, 2008). It is a shared system of beliefs and way of thinking established by the leaders and founders and accepted by all members of the organisation (Klein, 2006). Hofstede (2008) uses the analogy of an operating system suggesting that culture as a software enables people to function as hardware. This is a dynamic interaction between the environment and the individuals. Employees construct a shared social reality in their interactions with colleagues at the workplace, which has an impact on their beliefs, emotion regulation and behaviour in certain situations. A stable organisational culture is based on a well-defined system of values (Schein, 2004). This system of values influences members’ work style, communication and openness within the organisation, their opportunities to foster community life and to realize their potential, and many other everyday organisational practices that have an impact on employees’ well-being.

    Numerous types of organisational culture models and several organisational culture assessment instruments have been proposed in the literature. One of the most commonly used organisational culture model is The Competing Values Framework (CVF). This model focuses on leadership styles, organisational cultures and competencies while taking account of employees’ values. The objectives Organisation pursue to increase efficiency and productivity are based on various values. The authors used the operating characteristics of efficient Organisation to define the axes of the CVF.

    The vertical axis is defined by the two poles of flexibility and control, while the poles of the horizontal axis are internal and external focus. The two axes define four different types of cultures: team culture, adhocracy, market culture, and hierarchy. Hierarchy is the earliest and most permanent type of culture, which is characterized by bureaucracy. It ensures predictability and security for employees, who are assigned well- defined specific roles. In this type of culture, employees are primarily expected to observe the rules and to have respect for formal positions. Hierarchy is placed on the controlled pole because employees are regularly supervised. The priorities of this type of culture are predictability, order, stability and balance, which are ensured by continuous documentation and stabilization. Leaders’ primary functions are coordination and monitoring (Denison & Spreitzer, 1991).

    A market culture considers the organisation as an economic entity, which pursues rational interests and focuses on profits, productivity and efficiency. Employees have more autonomy and scope for personal development, while the tasks and objectives are clearly defined. This type of culture is also highly controlled but externally focused. Its priorities are productivity, efficiency and performance improvement. Leaders are directors on one hand, who fulfil a coordinating function, and producers on the other hand, focusing on productivity. (Denison & Spreitzer, 1991) A more recent development is the innovation-oriented adhocratic culture, which has taken a definite shape over the past decades. This type of culture usually develops in organic and open systems or at matrix Organisation. Its primary advantage is its adaptability. It focuses on innovation, creativity and risk taking. Information flow is open in this culture, and members are motivated and supported rather than controlled. This culture is ideal for those with a strong need for personal development, since this is its highest priority. It is an externally focused and flexible culture, which often relies on external resources. Leaders themselves are also innovators or brokers. (Denison & Spreitzer, 1991).

    A team culture focuses on human relations. This culture prioritizes agreement, coordination and teamwork. It assigns high importance to both commitment and personal development. Decision making is not leaders’ sole responsibility, but other members are also involved and informed. This type of culture meets the needs for communion and learning. It is internally focused and flexible. Leaders are mentors and facilitators. (Denison & Spreitzer, 1991)

    The way employees perceive their work environment and organisational culture has essential importance in their well-being, health, and enjoyment and quality of work (Hellriegel & Slocum, 1974). Employee well-being can be measured by factors such as sick leave rates, fatigue, and absenteeism (Peterson & Wilson, 2002). This type of culture is synonymous with the team culture in that it is centered around teamwork, and it lays special focus on the human condition and employees’ problems. In addition, consensual culture exhibited the strongest, negative association with nurses’ turnover intention, while hierarchical culture showed a significant positive association.

    Culture reported the lowest levels of stress and the highest levels of productivity and enjoyment, followed by those working in adhocratic, hierarchical and market cultures. Several studies suggest that one of the most important protective factors is the presence of social support, which is often associated with a team-oriented environment (La Rocco et al., 1980). As we can see, workplaces have an important role and responsibility in ensuring the necessary conditions for well-being at a societal level. One the major components of the organisational experiences is the perceived organisational culture. The present study was aimed at identifying those organisational conditions that would act as protective factors against work-related stress through the organisational culture.

    1.2 Statement of Problem

    It is true that the concept of culture in a company cannot be attributed to a single definition because it becomes difficult to define it, since in general the concept of culture stems from cultural anthropology. Culture is a structured set of basic assumptions that have been discovered or developed by a structured group as it learns to deal with problems of external adaptation and internal integration that have performed well in previously considered to be generally applicable and therefore can be taught to new members as the correct way of perceiving, thinking, feeling with these problems. Noteworthy also is that the concept of culture can be better understood through the interactions observed between Organisation and employees and we cannot say that they are subject to the limitation closely on matters of purely business culture, but contain a subset consisting of norms and values.

    There is strong evidence of a significant relationship between organisational culture and increased employees’ productivity and there is a positive relationship between corporate culture and employee job performance. A positive organisational cultures positive impact on employees’ performance by motivating, shaping and channeling their behaviors towards the attainment of corporate objectives. organisation culture has received relatively low levels of empirical investigation among the possible antecedents of employee performance, culture researchers have devoted numerous articles to the nature and definitions of culture, relatively fewer articles have been contributed towards culture and performance research. In addition, Edgar mentioned the reason for this was the difficulty in operationalizing the culture construct. Although empirical research has been carried out, there has been little evidence to prove the effect of organisation culture on employee performance.

    Organisation Culture has a great influence on performance as it dictates how things are done, Organisation’s philosophy, work environment, performance targets, and Organisation stability. organisational culture in the last few decades, the empirical evidences emerging from various studies about the effect of organisational culture on performance have so far yielded varied results that are inconclusive and contradictory. He further states that there is no agreement on the precise nature of the relationship between organisational culture and performance.

    1.3 Research Questions

    1. What is the relationship between management-staff relationship and employee wellbeing in GTB bank Bodija Ibadan?
    2. Is there any relationship between giving employee equal right and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan?
    3. How does authoritative management leadership influence employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan?
    4. What is the relationship between market culture and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan?

    1.4 Research Objectives

    The broad objective of this study is to investigate the impact of organisational culture on employee wellbeing. Specifically, this study will;
    Investigate management-staff relationship among banker in Ibadan
    Determine the different staff right among bankers in Ibadan
    Examine the different managerial rules among bankers in Ibadan
    Investigate the market culture among bankers in Ibadan
    Determine the relationship between organisational culture and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan

    1.5 Research Hypothesis

    H01: There is no significant relationship between management-staff relationship and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan, Oyo State.
    H02: There is no significant relationship between staff rights and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan, Oyo State.
    H03: There is no significant relationship between authoritative managerial rules and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan, Oyo State
    H04: There is no significant relationship between market culture and employee wellbeing among bankers in Ibadan, Oyo State

    1.6 Significant of the study

    This study is significant because it will help us to understand the role of culture in business organisation whose aims is to the develop and plan human resources management, in recruitment and selection, learning and evolution, labor relations and working climate in business, health, safety, prosperity, fulfillment of regulatory requirements for employees, equal opportunities, and any other matter relating to the employment relationship.

    This study will also help to know what influences employee’s performance in banking sector, how it affects and mainly enabling the organisation to achieve the goals of the company and to provide guidance and support on all matters concerning employees. The main goal is to ensure that organisation policies and practices re related to employment and human development and relationships between management and labor. The function of organisational management can play an important role in creating an environment that allows people to make the best use of their potential and realize their potential to the benefit of both the organisation and themselves.

    This study will also help to investigate the factors in Organisation, that successfully manage change, is already incorporated in their business policies in human resource management along with their strategies. The strategic process of change in education, labor relations, compensation packages and other not just operational issues associated with staff employed, as the way in which employees are related to the nature and direction of the business are inextricably linked. The function of organisational management may be involved in the initiation of change but can also act as a stabilizing factor in situations where a change could damage the function and objectives of the business. To facilitate change, managers should be fully informed of the reasons that employees resist in change and the approaches that can be adopted so as to curb any resistance there, and even to obtain their consent that this change is desirable.

    1.7 Scope of the Study

    This study is restricted to Ibadan metropolis the capital city of Oyo state.
    1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
    Bank: A bank is a financial institution that accept and deposits from the public and create a demand deposit while simultaneously making loans. Lending activities can be directly performed by the bank or indirectly through capital market.

    Well-being: Wellbeing is not just the absence of disease or illness. It is a complex combination of a person’s physical, mental, emotional and social health factors. In short, wellbeing could be described as how you feel about yourself and your life.

    Culture: Culture is a way of life of a group of people, the behaviour, belief, values and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them and they are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. Culture is a symbolic communication.

    Employee: An employee is an individual who was hired by an employer to do a specific job. The employee is hired by the employer after an application and interview process result in his/her selection as an employee. The term of an individual employment is specified by an offer letter, an employment contract or verbally.

    Impact: It is the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another and a marked effect or influence


    2.1 Concept Review
    The concept and definition of organisational culture has been debated by many experts in the field for over a decade. The term “culture” originally comes from social anthropology. According to them, concept of culture was coined to represent, in a very broad and holistic sense, the qualities of any specific group that are passed from one generation to the next (Kotter, 1992). organisational culture is the set of shared values, beliefs, and norms that influence the way employees think, feel, and behave in the workplace Culture is transmitted to an organisation member by means of socialization and training, rites and rituals, communication networks, and symbols (Schein, 2011). Organisational culture is as collection of traditions, values, beliefs, policies and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything one does and thinks in an organisation (Agwu, 2014). Schein (1992) defines organisational culture as: a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. Schein also states that these assumptions come to be taken for granted because they solve the group’s problems repeatedly and reliably. Also notes that culture can be analyzed at several different levels including artifacts, espoused values and basic underlying assumptions. Artifacts are defined as “visible Organisational structures and processes” (Schein., 1992). Examples of artifacts include dress codes, architecture, newsletters, signs, and banners.

    Another level of culture stated by Schein is Espoused Values. Espoused Values are audible and spoken, and includes goals, sayings, philosophies, strategies and slogans. The third level described by Schein is Basic Underlying Assumptions. Basic Underlying Assumptions are “unconscious, taken-for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings”. This includes assumptions that are not directly observable, consequently hard to analyze and change.
    Similar to Schein, Denison (2005) defines organisational culture as “underlying beliefs, values, and assumptions held by members of the organisation, and the practices and behaviors that exemplify and reinforce them.” Zhang (2010) also describes organisational culture as a model, composed by some basic assumptions; and the assumptions are found and created gradually by a certain group in the process of exploring the method of adapting to external environment and solving internal interconnected system. Internal integration is the socialization of new members in the Organisation, creating the new boundaries of the organisation and the feeling of identity among personnel and commitment to the organisation (Treblanche, 2003). External adaptation is also said to be creation of competitive edge, making sense of environment in terms of acceptable behavior and social system stability. The definitions by (Schein, 2004) and (Zhang, 2010.) Offer both deeper basic assumption and faith that is shared by organisational members in explaining the purpose; and the environment of organisation itself. Also, the affirmations focus on internal integration and external adaptation of Organisation which are the organisational culture attributes that define the performance of Organisation. It is thus admittance that organisational culture is paramount to organisational success (Gammack, 2006).

    Ravasi (2006) wrote that organisational culture is a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in Organisation by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviors and assumptions that are taught to new organisational members as a way of perceiving and, even, thinking and feeling. According to (Needle, 2004), organisational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organisational members and is a product of such factors as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organisation vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. As it can be seen from the above definitions, there are some commonalities between and it can be assumed that organisational culture comprises of some sort of values, beliefs, and attitudes that are held by individuals and the organisation.

    2.1.1 How Organisational Culture developed

    According to Dwirantwi (2012) postulates that as a concept, culture is inseparable from the notion of human society. To try and change the prevailing culture within an organisation, one has to take cognizance of the relevant societal culture. On the other hand, argues that a company’s organisation culture does not pop out of thin air and, once it is established, it does not fade away. An organisation ‘s current customs, traditions, and general way of doing things are largely due to what it has done before and the degree of success it has had with these endeavors. This leads one to its ultimate source of an organisation ‘s culture: its founders. Robbins further emphasizes that the founders of an organisation have a major impact on that organisation early culture. They have a vision of what the organisation should be, and they are unconstrained by previous customs and ideologies. The process of culture creation occurs in three ways:

    First, founders only hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do; second, they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling; and finally, the founder’s own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions. When the organisation succeeds, the founder ‘s vision becomes seen as a primary determinant of that success. At this point, the founder ‘s entire personalities become embedded in the culture of the organisation.

    In the other ways, Ojo (2012) indicated that the values and norms which are the basis of organisational culture are formed through the following four ways. These are:

    1. By Leaders in the organisation, especially those who have shaped them in the past. People identify with visionary leaders – how they behave and what they expect. They note what such leaders pay attention to and treat them as role models,
    2. Through Critical Incidents or Important events from which lessons are learned about desirable or undesirable behavior.
    3. Through effective working relationship among organisation members. This establishes values and expectations.
    4. Through the organisation Environment: Culture is learned over a period of time. Where a culture has developed over long periods of time and has become firmly embedded, it may be difficult to change quickly.

    According to Nadia (2015), the culture of the organisation has been derived from two resources which are as follows

    • For developing the culture of the organisation norms, attitudes and values of the senior executives is involved. Whole culture of the organisation revolves around the charismatic leadership.
    • The people who have been working previously in the Organisation have helped to solve the problems that may face by the new employees. Norms have been made from such incidents that myths may transfer to the new employees within the organisation.

    For the development of the organisational culture three things are required as:

    • Commitment (based on common philosophy and purpose)
    • Competence (indicate the development and reward in key areas)
    • Consistency (purpose is to spread the competence by attracting, developing, and retaining the right person for the right job) (Impact of Organisational Culture on Employee’s Performance)

    2.1.2 Types of Organisational culture
    According to Nadia (2015) there are two main approaches of the models of culture as type models. These models are responsible for the classification of the organisational culture from one to the limited number of the groupings. In lieu of the models one model suggests that there are four type’s organisational culture and each represents the structure and its sets of system. These four types are: Power, Task, Role and Person. And the other culture model types Profile Models: These types of models do not try to categorize the organisational culture, but they try to identify and explore its key characteristics. When such identification have been occurred than they have been compared to the culture that organisation demands and needs to operate and any appropriate changes that are required to be taken must be made. In the other way, Kim (2011) categorized organisational culture into four: Clan culture, hierarchy culture, adhocracy culture and market culture are each rooted in a model of organisational theory research.

    The Hierarchy/ Control Culture characterized by stability and an internal focus, is made up of a formal structured chain of command and control that emphasizes constancy, predictability, and efficiency. A very formalized and structured place to work. Procedures govern what people do. organisation with this kind of culture deals with doing things right which implies efficient utilizations of resources and achieving the right outputs. The leaders pride themselves on being good coordinators and organizers who are efficiency minded. Maintaining a smooth-running organisation is most critical. Formal rules and policies hold the organisation together. The long-term concern is stability and performance with efficient and smooth operations. Success is defined in terms of dependable delivery, smooth scheduling and low cost.

    The management of employees is concerned with secure employment and predictability. Efficiency, punctuality, consistency and uniformity are the value driven in organisation with such kinds of culture. Error detection, measurement, process control, systematic problem solving and quality tools are quality strategies in such kinds of Organisation. The identification of organisational cultures into different categories and dimension is not sufficient to attempt to understand and measure the culture of the organisation. However, it is also very important to measure the impact that the culture has on the everyday operations and workings of the organisation, that is, how the organisation organizes itself, its relations with customers (internal and external) and how the organisation treats staff, those should be key aspects when building a successful culture (Sun, 2012).

    The Market Culture/ compete characterized by stability and an external focus, produces a competitive organisation that emphasizes results and achieving goals. organisation with this culture is result-oriented whose major concern is getting the job done. It is with the intensions of doing things fast. In such organisation people are competitive and goal-oriented. Quality Strategies of organisation is measuring customer preferences, improving productivity, creating external partnerships, enhancing competitiveness, involving customers and suppliers. The leaders are hard drivers, producers, and competitors. They are tough and demanding. The glue that holds the organisation together is an emphasis on winning. Reputation and success are common concerns. The long-term focus is on competitive actions and achievement of measurable goals and targets. Success is defined in terms of market share and penetration.

    The Clan culture, characterized by a flexible and internal focus, is a collaborative culture with a strong commitment to the people of the organisation and their development, much like an extended family. Is with the motto of” do things together”. Exists in an organisation where there is a very pleasant place to work in which people share a lot of personal information, much like an extended family. The leaders or heads of the organisation are seen as mentors and perhaps even parent figures. The organisation is held together by loyalty or tradition. In this case, commitment is high. The organisation emphasizes the long-term benefit of human resources development and attaches great importance to cohesion and morale. Success is defined in terms of sensitivity to customers and concern for people. The organisation places a premium on teamwork, participation, and consensus. In an organisation with this type of organisation culture, leaders are facilitator, mentor and team builder. And the value drivers in such kind of culture are commitment, communication and development. In organisation with this king of culture quality strategy is empowerment, team building, employee involvement, human resource development, open communication.

    The Adhocracy/create Culture characterized by a flexible and internal focus, makes up a creative culture that promotes entrepreneurship, innovation, and unique ways to meet challenges and stay on the leading edge. is organisational culture where a work place is dynamic, entrepreneurial, and creative i.e.do things first. In such organisational culture, leaders are considered innovators and risk takers. The glue that holds the organisation together is commitment to experimentation and innovation. The organisation long-term emphasis is on growth and acquiring new resources. Success means gaining unique and new products or services. Being a product or service leader is important. The organisation encourages individual initiative and freedom. The quality strategy is, creating new standards, anticipating needs, continuous improvement, finding creative solutions.

    2.1.3 Functions of Organisational Culture

    Organisational culture has different functions in the life of any Organisation. It plays several important roles within an organisation. As such it provides a sense of identity and generates organisational commitment as well as commitment to the organisation mission and clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior (Greenberg, 2003). According to (Patel, 2014), the functions of organisational culture can manifest itself through creating the feeling of identity among personnel and commitment to the organisation and competitive edge to enable the members (especially new members) in the organisation to well understand acceptable behavior and social system stability.

    Dwirantwi (2012) indicates that culture helps to account for variations among Organisation and managers, both nationally and internationally. Culture helps to explain why different groups of people perceive things in their own way and perform things differently from other groups. Culture can help reduce complexity and uncertainty. It provides a consistency in outlook and values, and makes possible the process of decision-making, co-ordination and control. There is nothing accidental about cultural strengths. There is a relationship between an Organisation culture and its performance. And he explains that culture performs the four main functions.

    First and foremost, Culture supplements rational management creation of work. Culture is a time- consuming process. He continues by saying that, organisation culture cannot suddenly change the behavior of people in an organisation. Culture communicates to people through symbols, values, physical settings, and language, and thereby supplements the rational management tools such as technology and structure.

    The second function is it facilitates induction and socialization. Induction is a process through which new entrants to an organisation are socialized and indoctrinated in the expectations of the organisation; its cultural norms, and undefined conduct. The newcomer imbibes the culture of the organisation, which may involve changing his / her attitudes and beliefs to achieving an internalized commitment to the organisation.

    Furthermore, culture promotes a code of conduct; a strong culture in an organisation explicitly communicates modes of behavior so that people are conscious that certain behaviors are expected and others would never be visible. The presence of a strong culture, would be evident where members share a set of beliefs, values, and assumptions which would influence their behavior in an invisible way. Where culture has been fully assimilated by people, they persistently indulge in a typical behavior in a spontaneous way. Promotion of the culture of quality can helps achieve good business results.

    Lastly; sub-cultures contribute to organisational diversity: sub-cultures, and sub-systems of values and assumptions, which may be based on departmentalization, activity centers, or geographical locations, provide meaning to the interests of localized, specific groups of people within the macro-organisation. Sub-cultures can affect the organisation in many ways: (i) they may perpetuate and strengthen the existing culture; (ii) they may promote something very different from those existing; (iii) they may promote a totally opposite sub-culture (beliefs and values) or counter culture when in a difficult situation.

    1) Process-oriented vs. results-oriented (Means-oriented vs. Goal-oriented)

    This dimension is most closely associated with the effectiveness of the organisation. A process-oriented culture focus on how the work is done, it concerns more about technical and bureaucratic routine while results-oriented culture concerns about the outcome, where employees are asked about what to be done. The two sides of the dimensions are also different in level of risk taking. As Process-oriented culture emphasize on the assurance during working process, employees avoid risks and even make limited effort in the task. By contrast, employees in results-oriented tend to take more risk in order to achieve specific internal goals.
    2) Job-oriented vs. employee-oriented
    This dimension relates to management philosophy. The job-oriented culture assumes responsibility for the employees’ job performance only; it even heavily presses employees to perform the task. In opposite, employee-oriented culture considers also the employees’ wellbeing; it cares about individual issues too.
    3) Professional vs Parochial (local)
    In professional culture, employees are identified with their profession or content of their job. In the local culture, the identity of members is determined by the team or unit they work in.
    4) Open system vs. closed system
    This dimension reflects the level of the accessibility of an organisation. It refers to the internal and external communication style and how easily newcomers are welcome. In open system, a member is open to both insiders and outsiders as they believe everyone can fit the organisation.
    5) Tight vs. lose control (Easy going work discipline vs. strict work discipline)
    This dimension deals with the amount of internal control, structuring and discipline. It expresses the formality and punctuality level of the organisation. In a tight culture, members are expected to be punctual, serious and cost-conscious while loose culture exposes less control and discipline.
    6) Pragmatic vs normative (External driven vs. internal driven)
    This dimension is about customers’ satisfaction, or in general, it defines the principal way of dealing with the environment. The pragmatic culture (external driven), mostly existing in units such as selling or customer services, focus on fulfill the customers’ requirement. On the other side, normative culture (internal driven) emphasis on business ethics and honesty issues, which appears in units involving in laws and regulation. More recent, in his website, Hofstede (2014) add two more dimensions: degree of acceptance of leadership style and degree of identification with your organisation. Degree of acceptance of leadership style implies how the leadership style of employee’’ direct boss is alighted with their preferences. Degree of identification with your organisation tells us the degree to which one identifies with the organisation, such as internal goals, clients, direct boss, team, etc.

    2.2 Theoretical Framework

    2.2.1 Daniel Denison’s Model
    Denison and Neale (2011) identify four cultural traits Involvement, Consistency, Adaptability and Mission. These underlying traits are expressed in terms of a set of managerial practices and measured using the twelve indices that make up the model. (Denison & Neale, 2011). The below succeeding paragraphs briefly discuss each of the four organisational culture traits and their respective indices.

    Involvement is the degree to which individuals at all levels of the organisation are engaged in pursuit of the mission and work in a collaborative manner to fulfill organisational objectives. This trait consists of building human capability, ownership and responsibility. Organisation empower their people, build their Organisation around teams, and develop human capability at all levels (Lawler, 1996). Executives, managers, and employees are committed to their work and feel that they own a piece of the organisation. People at all levels feel that they have at least some input into decisions that will affect their work and that their work is directly connected to the goals of the organisation (Spreitzer, 1995).

    When capability development is higher than empowerment, this can be an indication that the organisation does not entrust capable employees with important decision making that impact their work. Capable employees may feel frustrated that their skills are not being fully utilized and may leave the organisation for better opportunities elsewhere if this is not dealt with. On the other hand, when empowerment is higher than capability development, this is often an indication that people in the organisation are making decisions that they are not capable of making. This can have disastrous consequences and often happens when managers confuse empowerment with abdication. When team development is higher than empowerment or capability development, it provides an indication that there cannot be much substance to the team. The team is likely to go about their daily activities without a real sense of purpose or without contributing to optimal organisational functioning.

    Consistency is the Organisation core values and the internal systems that support problem solving, efficiency, and effectiveness at every level and across organisational boundaries. Organisation also tend to be effective because they have “strong” cultures that are highly consistent, well-coordinated, and well-integrated (Saffold, 1988). The fundamental concept is that implicit control systems, based upon internalized values, are a more effective means of achieving coordination than external control systems which rely on explicit rules and regulations (Weick, 1987). Behavior is rooted in a set of core values, and leaders and followers are skilled at reaching agreement even when there are diverse points of view. This type of consistency is a powerful source of stability and internal integration that results from a common mindset and a high degree of conformity (Senge, 1990). When agreement is lower than core values and coordination, this tends to indicate that the organisation may have good intentions, but may become unglued when conflict or differing opinions arise. During discussions, different people might be seen talking at once or ignoring the input of others, and withdrawal behaviors might be observed. The result is that nothing tends to get resolved and the same issues tend to arise time and time again.

    Adaptability is the ability of the company to scan the external environment and respond to the ever-changing needs of its customers and other stakeholders. Organisation hold a system of norms and beliefs that support the organisation capacity to receive, interpret and translate signals from its environment into internal behavior changes that increase its chances for survival and growth (Denison, 1990). Ironically, Organisation that are well integrated are often the most difficult ones to change (Kanter, 1983).

    Adaptable Organisation are driven by their customers, take risks and learn from their mistakes, and have capability and experience at creating change (Nadler 1998, Senge 1990). When customer focus is higher than creating change and organisational learning, this signifies that the organisation may be good at meeting customer demands currently, but is unlikely to be planning for future customer requirements or leading customers to what they may want in the future.

    However, when organisational learning and creating change are higher than customer focus, there is an indication that the organisation is good at recognizing best practices and creating new standards in the industry, but has difficulty in applying their learning to their own customers. Mission is the degree to which the organisation and its members know where they are going, how they intend to get there, and how each individual can contribute to the organisation success. Successful Organisation have a clear sense of purpose and direction that defines organisational goals and strategic objectives. They express the vision of how the Organisation will look in the future (Hamel & Prahalad, 1994).

    When an organisation underlying mission changes, changes also occur in other aspects of the organisation culture. When strategic direction, intent and vision are higher than goals and objectives, this indicates that the organisation may have a difficult time executing or operationalizing its mission. There may be brilliant visionaries who have a difficult time translating dreams into reality. When goals and objectives are higher than strategic direction, intent and vision, this often indicates that the organisation is good at execution but lacks a real sense of direction, purpose or long-range planning. The focus is usually a short term, bottom-line focus with little forward planning.

    Thus, the four traits of Denison‟s Model of Culture and Effectiveness have been expanded by Denison & Neale (1996), Denison & Young (1999) as well as Fey & Denison (2003) to include three sub-dimensions for each trait for a total of 12 dimensions. The following are the four main cultural traits with their sub dimensions:

    Involvement trait (Attributes: capability development, team orientation, and empowerment); Consistency trait (Attributes: core values, agreement, and coordination and integration); Adaptability trait (Attributes: creating change, customer focus, and organisational learning); Mission trait (Attributes: vision, strategic direction and intent, and goals and objectives).

    Two of the traits, involvement and adaptability, are indicators of flexibility, openness, and responsiveness, and were strong predictors of growth. The other two traits, consistency and mission, are indicators of integration, direction, and vision, and were better predictors of profitability. Each of the four traits was also significant predictors of other effectiveness criteria such as quality, employee satisfaction, and overall performance. Mission and consistency are linked to financial performance, while involvement and adaptability can be linked to customer satisfaction and innovation. The four traits were strong predictors of subjectively-rated effectiveness criteria of the total sample of firms, but were strong predictors of objective criteria such as return-on-assets and sales growth only for larger firms.

    Involvement is the degree to which individuals at all levels of the organisation are engaged in pursuit of the mission and work in a collaborative manner to fulfill organisational objectives. This trait consists of building human capability, ownership and responsibility. Organisation empower their people, build their Organisation around teams, and develop human capability at all levels (Becker, 1964; Lawler, 1996; Likert, 1961). Executives, managers, and employees are committed to their work and feel that they own a piece of the organisation. People at all levels feel that they have at least some input into decisions that will affect their work and that their work is directly connected to the goals of the organisation (Spreitzer, 1995).

    When capability development is higher than empowerment, this can be an indication that the organisation does not entrust capable employees with important decision making that impact their work. Capable employees may feel frustrated that their skills are not being fully utilized and may leave the organisation for better opportunities elsewhere if this is not dealt with this may improve the Employee performance of the organisation.

    On the other hand, when empowerment is higher than capability development, this is often an indication that people in the organisation are making decisions that they are not capable of making. This can have disastrous consequences and often happens when managers confuse empowerment with abdication. When team development is higher than empowerment or capability development, it provides an indication that there cannot be much substance to the team. The team is likely to go about their daily activities without a real sense of purpose or without contributing to optimal organisational Employee performance (Lawler, 1996).

    Consistency is the organisation core values and the internal systems that support problem solving, efficiency, and effectiveness at every level and across organisational boundaries. Organisational so tend to be effective because they have “strong” cultures that are highly consistent, well-coordinated, and well-integrated (Saffold, 1988). The fundamental concept is that implicit control systems, based upon internalized values, are a more effective means of achieving coordination than external control systems which rely on explicit rules and regulations (Pascale, 1985, Weick, 1987).

    Behavior is rooted in a set of core values, and leaders and followers are skilled at reaching agreement even when there are diverse points of view (Block, 1991). This type of consistency is a powerful source of stability and internal integration that results from a common mind-set and a high degree of conformity (Senge, 1990). When agreement is lower than core values and coordination, this tends to indicate that the organisation may have good intentions, but may become unglued when conflict or differing opinions arise. During discussions, different people might be seen talking at once or ignoring the input of others, and withdrawal behaviors might be observed. The result is that nothing tends to get resolved and the same issues tend to arise time and time again.

    Consistency trait is also considered critical for achieving internal integration based on its ability to facilitate the coordination of activities. Unlike involvement, however, which emphasizes flexibility, consistency emphasizes stability and involves three components labelled, core values, agreement, and coordination and integration. These three components refer, respectively, to the degree to which organisational members, share a set of values which create a sense of identity and a clear set of expectations, are able to reach agreement on critical issues and reconcile differences when they occur, and work together well to achieve common goals, this might improve the Employee performance of a firm (Denison, 2000).

    The ability to be responsive toward external environment, internal customers (employees) and external customers by understanding the business demand environment into actions may give a chance to be resilient, growing and expanding. The ability to recognize and react to external and internal environments should be in line with the ability to react to internal and external customers. According to (Ahmad, 2012), the organisation is able to adjust its program to the existing environment outside the organisation as well as the adjustment of the group against the rules or norms in the group or organisation, as well as the adaptation of the organisation or company to environmental changes. (Indayati and Rofiaty, 2011) assert that a high level of adaptability is a necessity for any Organisation as the environment is really unconditioned. Thus, skills and competencies mastered by students are expected to be the provision of their lives in the future with a great deal of demands and development.

    There are some dimensions of variable of adaptability. The first is the ability to create change. The organisation should be able to change and adapt to environmental changes or adapt to potential changes that may occur in the future. The second is the ability to focus on the customer. In the context of education, the world is aimed at learners’ achievements, and this requires constant sensitivity to the emerging demands of the customers and the measurement of the factors that drive customer’s satisfaction. The last is the organisation ability to learn. Organisation must be responsive and adaptive to keep learning in every strategic decision to anticipate the internal environment to face the competition. Organisation are required to continue to develop and enhance their capabilities through learning, so that the products and services provision will give satisfaction to the customers.

    A clear mission should be in accordance with the culture and needs of the company and the needs of the market. All this should foster employees’ commitment to their jobs and foster their morale, sense of harmony in the working lives of employees and excellent working standards (Doloksaribu, 2001). The appreciation to the mission gives two big influences on the functioning of the company, namely, determining the benefits and meaning by defining social roles and external goals for the institution as well as defining the role of individuals with regards to the role of the institutions. Through this process, the behavior of intrinsic meaning or even spiritual may exceed the functional role of the bureaucracy, providing clarity and direction or rules. Awareness of the organisation mission gives a clear direction and objectives that serve to define a series of appropriate measures for the organisation and its members.
    There are some dimensions of variable of mission. The first is strategic directions and intentions. A successful organisation has a clear direction and goal that are clearly defined in the organisation goals and strategic objectives, and these are reflected in the organisation vision for the future. The second is goals and objectives. The mission provides direction to the managers (top management) in making an appropriate strategy to achieve and communicate the organisation goals and objectives, creating a common feeling toward the jobs being done. The last is vision. Vision is the expected aspiration of the state to be realized in the future. To achieve these ideals goals, of course, should move all resources starting at the top to the bottom levels.

    2.2.2 Edgar Schein Model

    Schein (2004) believed that there are three levels in an organisation culture and his model focuses on artifacts, values, and assumptions.
    Artifacts: The first level is the characteristics of the organisation which can be easily viewed, heard and felt by individuals collectively known as artifacts. The dress code of the employees, office furniture, facilities, behavior of the employees, mission and vision of the Organisational come under artifacts and go a long way in deciding the culture of the workplace. And this aspect of the organisational culture is the simplest perspective on culture which is provided by the tangible artifacts that reveal specific cultural predispositions.

    Values: The next level according to this model which constitutes the organisation culture is the values of the employees and rules of behavior. The values of the individuals working in the organisation play an important role in deciding the organisation culture. The thought process and attitude of employees have deep impact on the culture of any particular organisation. The mind-set of the individual associated with any particular organisation influences the culture of the workplace. Values pertain largely to the ethics embedded in an organisation.

    Assumed Values: The third level is the assumed values of the employees which can’t be measured but do make a difference to the culture of the organisation. There are certain beliefs and facts which stay hidden but do affect the culture of the organisation. The inner aspects of human nature come under the third level of organisation culture. The Organisation follow certain practices which are not discussed often but understood on their own and much more difficult to deduce through observation alone. These are tacit assumptions that infect the way in which communication occurs and individuals behave. They are often unconscious, yet hugely important.

    2.2.3 O’Reilly, Chatman and Caldwell Model

    Edgar (2013) developed a model based on the belief that cultures can be distinguished by values that are reinforced within Organisation. Their organisational Profile Model (OCP) is a self-reporting tool which makes distinctions according seven categories – Innovation and risk taking, Stability, Respect for People, Outcome Orientation, and Attention to Detail, Team Orientation, and Aggressiveness. These seven dimensions are:

    1. Innovation and Risk taking: characterizes the degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks while performing their duties.
    2. Attention to detail: the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail or task. It means that paying attention to being precise/ careful.
    3. Outcome Orientation: the degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve these outcomes.
    4. People Orientation: the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organisation. It is degree of value and respect for people.
    5. Team Orientation: the degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals based.
    6. Aggressiveness: the degree to which the people are aggressive and competitive regarding their work rather than easy going.
    7. Stability: the degree to which organisational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth. Or the organisational openness to change.

    2.3 Employee Performance

    According to Mohammad, Rumana and Saad (2013) the word ‘performance’ can be used to describe different aspects such as societal performance, organisational performance, employee performance, and individual performance etc. Performance on the other hand refers to be the ability (both physical & psychological) to execute a specific task in a specific manner that can be measured as high, medium or low in scale. Performance refers to the degree of achievement of the mission at work place that builds up an employee job. Different researchers have different thoughts about performance. Mostly researchers used the term performance to express the range of measurements of transactional efficiency and input & output efficiency. Performance is a continuous process to controversial issue between organisational researchers.

    Employee’s performance means the ability of employees to attain goals either personal or organisational by using resources efficiently and effectively. Sometime the term performance mixed with productivity. Performance and productivity were two different things. Productivity means the ratio represents the volume of work done within the due to the period while performance is an indicator of productivity, consistency, and quality of work (Fakhar, Zahid & Muhammad, 2013).

    From Dedrick (1999) points, employee performance could be defined as the record of outcomes achieved, for each job function, during a specified period of time. If viewed in this way, performance is represented as a distribution of outcomes achieved, and performance could be measured by using a variety of parameters which describe an employee’s paten of performance over time. Different studies related to employee performance variables were carried out in the past. A study Murphy and Kroeker (1988) defines employee performance as a function of the individual’s performances on the specific tasks that comprise standard job descriptions, and declares that it is also affected by variables such as maintaining good interpersonal relations, absenteeism and withdrawal behaviors, substance abuse and other behaviors that increase hazards at the workplace (Murphy, 1989). A study Befort and Hattrup (2003) indicates that the essence of job performance relies on the demands of job, the goals and the mission of the organisation and the beliefs of the organisation about which behavior are mostly valued. To conclude, employee performance could be simply understood as the related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed.

    2.3.1 Measurement of employee performance

    Performance of employee is calculated against the performance standard by the organisation. Good performance means that how employee performed in the task that assigned to him. Performance is a main multidimensional build aimed to get results and has a strong link to planned objectives of an organisation. The work of employee is made up by his achievement of mission of organisation that shows the limits of performance. The achievement of objectives of organisation has been designed based on employee performance. An employee’s achievement when he gains the goals of organisation at workplace is called performance. Different researchers have identified different thoughts, attitudes and beliefs of performance as it helps in measurement of input and output effectiveness measures that guide transactional relationship (Nadia, 2015).

    In this study the performance of employee should be measured by employee job performance. Due to the reason a company undertakes the individual job performance measure to evaluate the performance of employee it includes individual task performance evaluation and employee behavioral competency performance evaluation. In order to measure the dependent variable employee performance, individual work performance questionnaire (IWPQ) that was developed by (Koopmans 2014) was used; the questionnaire consists of 18 questions and addresses aspects of task performance, contextual performance and productive behavior of employee job performance on a 5-Point Likert Scale.

    2.4 Empirical Review

    This section outlines the result of different researches on the topic ‘’ the effect of organisational Culture on Employee Performance’’ and it is tried to summarize below. Impact of organisational culture on employee performance and productivity by undertaking a case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh. The result of this study also indicated the sound role of organisational culture on employee performances and productivities. It also indicated that organisational culture significantly influences employee performance and productivity in the dynamic emerging context. The findings of this paper significantly demonstrate both positive and negative mannerism of organisational culture which has significant consequences on employees as well as organisational performance. It also asserted that organisational culture is an open system approach and it has interdependent and interactive association with Organisation performance.

    Agwu (2014) made a study on the ‘’organisational Culture and Employee Performance in the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) in Nigeria’’. It assumes that a positive organisational culture will enhance employee’s performance. The three major findings of the research were NAFDAC’s organisational culture of decentralization provide employees with greater intrinsic rewards than other traditional means of governance, there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and increased employees’ commitment in NAFDAC and the last research result was there is a significant relationship between organisational culture and increased employees’ productivity in NAFDAC.

    Ojo (2009) analyzed and assesses empirically the impact of corporate culture on employee job performance as well as organisational productivity using Nigerian banking industry as the case study. He tried to ascertain if organisational culture affects employee job performance, and to formulate recommendations regarding corporate culture and employee job performance. He came out with the result that majority of the respondents strongly agrees that corporate culture has effect on employee job performance, and that majority of the employee’s respondents agree that corporate culture has effect determines the productivity level of the organisation. organisational culture is a major determinant of an employee’s efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out their jobs. That is, organisational culture is one of the major key determinants of how employees perform or behaves in their job (Ojo, 2012).

    Additionally, Sun (2012) said organisational culture can have an influence on: employee motivation; employee morale and ‘good will’; productivity and efficiency; the quality of work; innovation and creativity and the attitude of employees in the workplace. With the great number of Organisation and institutions globally, it is only natural that the general well-being of workplaces has become an object of theoretical interest and extensive research. An organisation wellbeing is described as the way in which its function and quality are perceived by employees. It includes the employees’ physical and mental health, sense of happiness and social wellbeing, which are all attributed with the term “job satisfaction” (Grant, Christianson & Price 2007).

    Job satisfaction is one of the most frequently investigated variables in organisational culture, behavior and other occupational phenomena, ranging from job design to supervision. In general, job satisfaction encapsulates an employee’s felling about his/ her job. Research, however, has revealed that job satisfaction is a multidimensional phenomenon, influenced by several internal and external factors, like the individual’s values, principles, personality and expectations and the job’s nature, the opportunities provided etc. Many different components of job satisfaction have been defined and studied, in the frame of a general effort to analyze and promote it (Koustelios & Kousteliou, 2001).

    The basis for the investigation and assessment of job satisfaction was formed by the Motivation-Hygiene theory of Herzberg and Mausner (1959), according to which employees’ feelings toward their job are affected by two factors, motivators and hygiene issues. In particular, motivators are able to create satisfaction by fulfilling the individual’s needs for meaning and personal growth. They include the work itself, personal achievement, responsibility, recognition and advancement. Those factors satisfy a person’s need for self-actualization, thus lead the employee to develop positive job attitudes. Hygiene factors, on the other hand, do not actually motivate employees, but –if they are properly handled- can minimize the feeling of dissatisfaction.

    They include physical working conditions, job security, supervision, salary, institution policy and administration, interpersonal relations and benefits. If the hygiene factors are addressed, the motivators will promote the employee’s job satisfaction and encourage production (Herzberg, Maunser, & Snyderman, 1959). Therefore, Herzberg and his colleagues (1959) formulated the two-factor theory, according to which job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separates, and sometimes ever unrelated, phenomena, which they should not be measured on the same continuum. Intrinsic factors – motivators are considered to be “satisfiers”, while extrinsic factors – hygiene factors are perceived as “dissatisfiers”. The significance of Herzberg’s work lies in the fact that it revealed the global character of job satisfaction. The global approach is used in the study of the employee’s overall attitude toward their work, while the facet approach is used in the study of separate job parts which are likely to promote or prevent job satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Sowmya & Panchanatham, 2011).

    A few years later, Hackman & Oldman (1975) formed another model of job satisfaction, in order to describe the causal relation between a job’s features and the employees’ behavior. This relation is affected by three psychological conditions: 1. Experienced meaningfulness of work, 2. Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of work and 3. Knowledge of the actual results of work. According to this theory, employees are more likely to react positively to their work if they experience the feeling that their work is remarkable and that they are responsible for their job performance and if they are aware of their actual job performance. The first psychological condition is affected by three fundamental job features, skill variety (different activities require different skills), task identity (completion of a special task) and task significance (the effect of a task on other people).

    The second condition is affected by another job feature, autonomy (independence and freedom during the completion of a task), while the third condition is affected by the job feature of feedback (providing accurate information about the effectiveness and performance in a specific task). The combined values of these five variables define the overall complexity of the task, which is called motivating potential. The motivating potential is the degree that intrinsic motivation of the employee can be caused and it is affected by the combination of the above five features (Hackman & Oldman 1975). During the following decades, many researches were conducted in order to define and describe the dimensions of the job satisfaction phenomenon. The work of Kennerly (1989) revealed the relationship between job satisfaction, leadership behaviors and ORGANISATIONAL culture. More specifically, ORGANISATIONAL behaviors, like warmth among employees, mutual trust, respect and rapport between employees and superiors can be significant predicting factors of the job satisfaction experienced by employees in the field of health (Kennerly, 1989). The work of Billingsley and Cross (1992) showed that leadership support, work involvement and low role conflict can be predicting factor of job commitment, job satisfaction and unwillingness to quit (Billingsley & Cross 1992).

    Moody (1996) found that job satisfaction was higher among employees with many years of experience in the specific institution, in terms or nature of work, income and cooperation among colleagues (Moody 1996). In the years that followed, the interest of researchers was turned to a cognitive approach of job satisfaction, taking into account not only the employees’ needs, but their cognitive processes that determine their attitudes and perspectives. Spector (1997) reviewed the most popular job satisfaction instruments and summarized the following facets of job satisfaction: appreciation, communication, co-workers, fringe benefits, job conditions, nature of the work itself, the nature of the ORGANISATION itself, ORGANISATION’s policies and procedures, payment, personal growth, promotion opportunities, recognition, security and supervision.

    The study of Doughty et al. (2002) showed that the most appreciated job satisfaction factors were job involvement, cohesion among colleagues, support from superiors and opportunities for autonomous action (Doughty, May, Butell, & Tong, 2002). The counterpart factor revealed by the study of Castillo and Cano (2004) was the work itself, while working conditions were reported to be the less important factors (Castillo & Cano, 2004). Other factors of job satisfaction reported in the study of Ambrose et al. (2005) were salaries, mentoring and promotion opportunities
    (Ambrose, Huston, & Norman, 2005).

    Job satisfaction has been widely measured and studied in the frame of many scientific fields and it has been correlated with several factors: demographic, individual, occupational etc. In terms of demographic characteristics, job satisfaction has been correlated with age gender and educational level. In some cases, educational level, position held and years of experience were found to be factors that could partially predict the levels of employees’ job satisfaction (Grant, Christianson, & Price, 2007). Hill, Birrel, & Cook, (1985) have found positive correlation between gender and job satisfaction, while Asha (1994) showed that job satisfaction among women employees was related to their perception of family environment. Clark, Oswald, & Warr, (1996) revealed that married and widowed employees experience higher job satisfaction levels than single and divorced employees. Jung, Moon, & Hahm, (2007) came to the conclusion that job satisfaction was affected by the employees’ gender in terms of working environment and wages.

    The recent studies of Belias et al. (2013a; 2013b) revealed that the experience of job satisfaction among Greek bank employees is affected by several demographic features. More specifically, the factor of gender seemed to affect the employees’ feeling of job satisfaction in terms of nature of work and attitudes toward their immediate superior. Female employees were more likely to feel that their salary was not adequate to cover their needs, the promotion opportunities were low, their work was monotonous and their superior was rude or annoying more than men did. In terms of age, Lee & Wilbur (1985) had revealed that job satisfaction increased with age, as older employees were more satisfied with the extrinsic features of their job. Those findings were confirmed by the researches of Falcon (1991) and Oleckno & Blacconiere (1993). Blackburn & Bruce (1989) had shown that job satisfaction is correlated with age, education and length of tenure. Al-Ajmi (2001) stated that young managers might share the opinion that their expertise is not appreciated enough and that aged generations enjoy an almost complete monopoly on important jobs. Thus, they tend to be less satisfied with their job, as job satisfaction is influenced by the factor of having a highly prestigious job and earning enough money. Choudhury & Gupta (2011) found that the feeling of job satisfaction and pay satisfaction is more likely to affect the turnover intention of employees under 25 years than those who are over 25 and relatively experienced.

    In the studies of Belias et al. (2013a; 2013b), age was negatively correlated with the factors of nature of work, working conditions and promotions, indicating that young employees were more dissatisfied with their duties, aspects of promotion and co-workers. The fact that job satisfaction appears to be lower among young employees may be explained by their lack of experience, high possibilities of making mistakes and great anxiety in their attempt to carry out the role assigned to them, while they are more likely to be affected by negative experiences and uncomfortable situations. Taking into consideration the bank employees’ educational level, research findings do not seem to agree, as it has been both positively (Clark et al., 1996; Zou, 2007) and negatively (Wae, 2001; Phil, 2009) correlated with job satisfaction, while other investigations indicated no significant correlation (Green, 2000). In the study of Bader, Hashim & Zaharim, (2013), employees of secondary level education showed higher job satisfaction levels than employees holding an undergraduate degree. One possible explanation which is given is that highly educated employees are more likely to have higher expectations thus feel more dissatisfied with job opportunities. The study of Belias, Koustelios et al. (2013) showed that university degree holders were more satisfied with the nature of their work, while master degree holders had higher promotion expectations and more positive attitudes toward their superiors.

    An employee’s position in a certain institution is considered to be highly correlated with the feeling of job satisfaction. Studies like the ones of Reilly, Brett, & Stroh, (1993) and Howard & Frink (1996) had revealed that managers are more likely to experience higher levels of job satisfaction than clerks and other staff, as they are provided with more opportunities for growth. However, the study of Bader et al. (2013) showed that high level managers, department managers and staff experience approximately the same job satisfaction levels. Finally, researches have shown that the years of experience both in a certain institution and in general are likely to affect the feeling of job satisfaction of employees. Wae (2001), for example, indicated that bank employees with long working experience were more satisfied with their job than employees with short experience. Others, like Phil (2009) and Green (2000) found no statistically significant difference. In the study of Belias, Koustelios et al. (2013), it was found that the employees’ years of experience both in the specific institution and in general were negatively correlated with their attitudes toward their immediate superior and the position held was positively correlated with working conditions, nature of work and the employees’ perception of the institution as a whole.

  • Construction of a Mini off Grid Solar Home System



    The off-grid system term states the system not relating to the gird facility. Primarily, the system which is not connected to the main electrical grid is term as off-grid PV system . Off-grid system also called standalone system or mini grid which can generate the power and run the appliances by itself. Off-grid systems are suitable for the electrification of small community. Off-grid electrification system is viable for the remote areas in the countries where they do have little or no access to the electricity because of the distinct living and spread population in the vast area. The off-grid system refers to the support that would be adequate for a living without depending on the grid or other system. Electrical energy in the off-gird system produced through the Solar photovoltaic panels needs to be stored or saved because requirement from the load can be different from the solar panel output, battery bank is also used for the purpose generally.

    1.1 Background of study

    Energy systems often include Renewables Energy Systems (RES). RES play an important role from technical, economic, social and environmental point of view. The high cost of the fuel used in systems based totally on diesel generators (gensets) has led to the development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems are the combination of two or more energy sources, from Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) and from conventional technologies, with an energy storage and power conditioning system. The use of RES would reduce the fuel consumption as well as the polluted emission of a 100% diesel plant. The initial investment will be higher in a hybrid energy system, but the use of fuel and consequently its cost will be reduced.

    1.2 Statement of the problem

    About 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity. Around 20 % of the total population, most of them located in rural or isolated areas have little or no access to main grid. A good development of Mini Grid systems, apart from offering reliable electricity, could also improve the economy of these areas. On the other hand, climate change implies finding new ways to obtain energy and protect the environment, renewable energy systems are escalating fast, and can lead to fight carbondioxide(CO2) emissions in a high percentage. Three important fields to consider in this study will be technical, economic and social aspects, which have to be taken into account when choosing a Mini off-Grid system implementation. Regarding the technological dimension, significant advances can be observed with these kinds of technologies. Secondly, there is a need for an affordable operation and durable system installation. Thirdly, with respect to the social dimension, a lack of communication exists between foreign companies that install the components taking part in mini-grid systems, and the locals that live in rural or isolated areas and own the land. In addition, there are some constraints when evaluating the success of the whole system installation and its performance. For instance, referring to PV and wind turbines, it is known that they do not always work at their maximum production level, since it will always depend on the daily sun radiation and wind speed. This situation could lead, in some cases, to an overuse of the diesel generator implying greater economic expenses and higher emissions. Moreover, another disadvantage related to the installation process is the difficulties that can be found in reaching isolated areas due to the existence of poor access, for example, for transportation. In summary, the current study is relevant principally to provide these communities and areas with reliable electrification; consequently, implying an improvement in their lifestyle and economy. Therefore, this document tries to explore the crucially important position of households in Mini off-Grid systems in order to achieve a better understanding and a more encompassing policy debate while taking into account the proper and most efficient use of natural resources.

    1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research:

    The usage of solar energy is increasing day by day both in terms of demand and usage. Our aim is to provide the most useful solar solution while maintaining the novelty. So, the construction of a mini off-grid solar home system. Futhermore, An off grid system with DC load along battery bank. The off-grid application is considered because the system is to be independent of the grid so that it can be used at any time.
    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of the different kind of impacts the use of off-grid solar systems has upon the livelihoods of households

    1.4 Contribution to knowledge

    The construction of a mini off grid solar system has brought about the understanding that life can be made a lot easier with the presence of a mini off grid solar system as sun is free, sustainable, clean resources we can leverage in place of convectional electricity to power our lives. Solar energy can be used to provide heat, light and other electricity-dependent needs in homes

    1.5 limitation/scope of the project

    Some of the limitations of an off grid mini home solar system include;

    • They are more costly
    • batteries are required to deliver electricity consistently throughout the day and night
    • it could require a lifestyle change to reduce energy consumption
    • surplus energy production
    • cannot rely on the grid at night or on cloudy days
    • batteries require maintenance, have a relatively short lifespan and degrade rapidly


    2.1 Brief outline of the project

    2.2 Historical background of the project

    The term off grid first appeared in the mid nineties, highlighted by the environmental nick Rosen in the launch of an ecological motivated website www.offgrid,net and featured more recently in his book how to live off grid (Doubleday 2007)
    The history of solar energy
    Thinking of solar energy in the 21st century,a smart system of powering our homes with the light from the sun and solar panels. While solar panel technology is relatively new, dating back about 50 years, the use of suns energy to sustain livelihoods in fact began a number of centuries ago.
    History with the sun has a far dating and fascinating history, documented from as far as the 7th century B.C . Societies, throughout time, have been using the suns energy in intelligent ways to facilitate their lives. From the discovery of fire to the vast commercialization of solar power and domestic usage in todays world.
    The solar energy we have known to come and love as a renewable form of energy, has inspired some of the greatest changes in recent times . Below is the summarization of the solar energy breakthroughs from the 16th century to the present day
    Ancient uses of solar energy
    Early uses of the sun focused on harnessing the sun’s energy for use as a heat source. Dating back to the Ancient Egyptian civilizations, buildings were designed in ways that maximized light entry and warmth.
    From the 3rd Century B.C., the Ancient Greeks and Romans were using sunlight to create fire torches. Proving particularly handy for sacred and religious ceremonies.

    The 16th-17th century: Development of the first solar cell
    Fast forward to the 16th century, the first solar cell was designed by Swiss Scientist Horace-Benedict de Saussure in 1767.
    Seventy-two years later, further innovation and progress in the evolution of solar energy was made. At just 19 years old, French scientist Edmond Becqurel discovered the Photovoltaic Effect: voltage and electric current in materials can be generated upon exposure to light.
    By 1870, another milestone was reached where the discovery that light could be turned into electricity without heat is made.
    Moving onto the 1890s, the first commercial solar heat pump was patented.
    By the end of the 17th century, American inventor Charles Fritz created the first working selenium solar cell (in today’s era, silicon is used in cells for solar panels).
    Up until this point, the contribution and experimental discoveries of various inventors and scientists had led up to the creation of the modern solar photovoltaic (PV) panel.

    Early 20th Century: The modenization of solar energy
    1905 was the year a young Albert Einstein (26 years old at the time) published his work titled “On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light.” Where he studied what became known as the photoelectric effect.
    1917 Einstein gave a theoretical foundation to photovoltaics by introducing the notion that lights as packets carry electromagnetic force.
    By 1954, scientists at Bell Laboratories developed the first practical photovoltaic cell.
    By the mid 1950s the first solar-powered telephone call was made. Illustrating the further development and reliability in solar energy being recognised.
    A year later in 1956, the first solar powered radio was introduced by General Electric. The radio was able to function in the day and night.
    Just a few years later, the US experimented with the application of solar PV cells on Earth orbiting satellites. Since then and up to the present day, solar power is the accepted energy source for space applications!
    By 1958 a spacecraft called Vanguard I became the first to be powered by solar panels.
    In London 1960, the first solar car was introduced, with a solar-panel roof and a 72-volt battery.
    1982 was when the first large-scale solar farm was built near Hesperia, California.
    Developments in solar continued throughout the 1990s, and emerging global economies began to grow their share in renewables (especially wind and solar PV) during this time.
    The 2000s: Solar energy goes commercial
    From the 2000s, solar power starts to become accessible for everyone. The renewable energy sector is booming and the following decade sees ground-breaking advancements and the expansion in solar PV tech and their installations respectively.
    Mandatory targets for renewable energy are now set across the EU.
    We see the development of a competitive internal energy market, with renewables playing an important role.
    From the 2000s to the 2010s, more capacity is added to the renewables sector than any other (and this trend is continuing!).
    In 2012, the European Photovoltaic Industry Association, stated that ‘the solar PV industry installed more than 30 gigawatts worldwide which led to the cumulative global installations to be more than 100 gigawatts.’
    Solar panels become more efficient, convenient and easier to access for home and business owners. As of 2018, there were more than 1 million solar PV installations.
    During 2018, the UK generated 3.9% of its total electricity using solar power.
    2019 saw the first offshore floating solar farm is installed in the Dutch North Sea.
    By 2020 it was cheaper to build a new solar plant than it is to continue operating an existing coal plant. Showing just the extent of our reliance on solar energy.
    By 2020 The International Energy Agency declared that “Solar is the new king of the electricity markets”.
    And finally, 2021 and 2022 is set to see renewable energy accounting for 90% of new power capacity expansion globally.
    The present day: Solar energy goes global
    Today, we continue to see the expansion and use of solar powered devices, infrastructure and transport. Investments into solar parks and farms (both the small and mega) continue to take place across the globe.
    The historic advancements and current position of solar place the power of this renewable resource in a promising position. In terms of the UK’s solar future, it looks particularly bright as it sets to double its solar capacity by 2030.

    2.3 Theory and concept revelant to the study

    ITEMPOWER (W)QTY (n)Number of hoursEnergy Wh
    Solar panel50190.450
    Total power330630309wh = 3.09Kwh
    BEME Table 2.3 Theory and concept revelant to the study

    2.3.2 Shade Analysis: Shading can be a problem for the solar panels as they decrease the maximum power that can be generated. Several factors contribute to this issue, the most common cause of shade on a solar panel are;

    1) Shade from neighboring trees and buildings in vicinity,

    2) typical cloudy weather, and

    3) shade from adjacent solar panels.

    While designing a solar PV system one must investigate these factors thoroughly so that maximum output can be obtained. One of the tools most commonly used is solar pathfinder which gives the direction of the sun throughout the year and how much any specific area will receive sunlight throughout the year. Apart from having this tool, it is important that the site assessment is done properly to locate the best site keeping in mind all the aspects.
    Sun hours: Sun hours are important to know how much radiance will be required to generate the needed output wattage. This parameter gives us the knowledge of number of hours an area will receive maximum sunlight. With advances in technology we have this data available online and anyone can use it. We have studied the data from NREL and NASA but for our project we will be uvsing data given by NREL as it is giving information of the Sun hours to a closer proximity to Charleston. The following chart gives the required information of the Sun hours depending on different zones classified by NREL
    chart 2.2 Sun hours depending on different time zones

    Sun hours depending on different time zones
    Sun hours depending on different time zones

    Tilt angle: Tilt angle is the setting of the panels one needs to have to get the maximum radiance. Ideally the tilt angle is the latitude of the geographic location. It is suggested to have an adjustable panel frames as the sun hours keep changing with respect to the tilt in winters and summers. Hence for any area a specaific tilt angle is calculated to get the maximum radiance throughout the year for a fixed panel. Also, it is advised to have the panels facing the south to get the maximum afternoon sun. A couple of devices are used in the process of finding the tilt angle and the radiance that will fall upon panel at that tilt angle are inclinometer and pyrometer, respectively. An inclinometer is kept on the panel and the degrees are read to find the latitude of the area as it is perpendicular to the Sun’s radiations when it is at its highest point in the sky. Pyrometer measures the solar irradiance that will fall at a given tilt angle. It measures solar irradiance in Watts per meter Sq.
    2.3.3 Battery Sizing;
    PV battery system assesses various strategies from a financial perspective. The valuable existence of the battery is limited to 5,000 cycles or in the planned living time of 20 years. The maintenance of photovoltaic and rechargeable annual activities and expenditure systems is set at 1.5% per the speculative cost. Assume that the cost system for the battery and PV is comparable to their size. Following is a formula that will enable to calculate what size of battery they should have. (Leonics, n.d.) Battery Capacity (Ah) = Total Watt-hours per day used by appliances x Days of autonomy (0.85 x 0.6 x nominal battery voltage)
    2.3.4 Inverter: Inverter deals with following main tasks of energy: (ALTE store, n.d.)
    Convert DC from PV module to AC
    Ensure that the cycle of alternating current cycles is 60 cycles
    Reduce voltage variations
    Ensure that the condition of the AC waveform is suitable for the application
    Most system-connected inverters can be introduced externally, and most of the off-grid inverters are not weather-resistant. There are basically two types of grid intelligent Inverters: Those designed for batteries and those designed for systems without battery-connected inverter systems and give excellent void-quality strength. For matrix associations, the inverter should have a “useful-interactive” typeface, which is printed specifically for the publication name.
    Grid-connected systems measure the power of extracting PV clusters rather than a bunch of prerequisite buildings. It asserts that what each power supply needs are what the matrix-related PV system can give naturally is drawn from the net. Invertors used for solar PV systems are usually based upon the total wattage of the solar panels, as the invertor will be continuously converting the power generated. The second consideration one must investigate, is the voltage level of the system. For example, if the system is designed to generate 2000 Watts at a voltage level of 12 V then the invertor selected should be rated 12V, 2000 Watts (Alternative Energy, n.d.).
    2.3.5 Charge Controller: The charge controller, sometimes referred to as a photovoltaic controller or charger, is only necessary for the system which involves a battery (Wholesale Solar, n.d.). The main capacity of the charge controller is to counteract the battery spoofing. The basic function of charge controller is to monitor charging and discharging of the battery. It prevents the battery from being completely charged or discharged. This is important because over charging can lead to destruction of the battery and under charging decreases the battery life. Another important reason to use a charge controller is to prevent a reverse current flowing from battery to the system. There are two types of controllers that are widely available in the market; 1) Pulse width Modulation (PWM), 2) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) (Northern Arizon Wind and Sun, n.d.) 1. Pulse width modulation: A pulse width modulation charge controller is set match the input power of the battery irrespective of the power generated by the panels. There is an inherent loss in power observed in this type of charger. 2. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT): This type of charger helps to get the optimum charging power for any given point of time and offers better efficiency that PWM. Though the MPPT charge controllers enable you to have better efficiencies and provides more power than compared to PWM for similar condition, the main cause of not opting for MPPT is price of it (Solar Guy, 2016). MPPT charge controllers are more expensive than PWM controllers. Keeping this parameter in mind, this project will be using a PWM charge controller for realizing the concept. To select the size of charge controller one must know the voltage level of the system and the maximum operating current. It is a usual practice to over size the controller for safety reasons. Proposal to Convert 7th Street Bus Stand into a Standalone PV System Bus shelters are common in every structure one can find in urban and sub-urban settings and most of them are tied to the grid to provide electricity. But most of the rural and sub-urban areas do not have this facility of having their bus shelters electrified through grid. In such place we could use the off-grid or standalone PV system which can function without the grids assistance. Eastern Illinois University has always been a leader in embracing new technologies that promotes betterment of the environment and its students. Panther shuttle bus-stops across the campus serve hundreds of the students on a day-to-day basis. Currently, all the bus stops on the campus are not connected with the existing electrical grid. Hence, taking an initiative to serve the students an also realizing a proof of concept for standalone systems the following PV system has been designed.

  • A Project Write-up on Solar inverter


    With the rising need of electricity in its efficient, less toxic, consistent and cheapest form, there is need to explore every means of satisfying the aforementioned needs and solar electricity has been one of the leading ways to achieving that. Solar electricity provide consistent and steady source of solar power throughout the year. The main benefit of solar energy is that it can be easily deployed by both home and business users as it does not require a huge setup. Solar energy not only benefits individual owners, but also benefit environment as well. It is non-polluting as it does not release harmful gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, or sulphur oxide. Solar energy requires low maintenance, does not create noise, is easy to install and can be used in remote locations. Solar electricity is one of the most widely used renewable energy source.

    Project on solar battery nverter
    Solar battery

    Solar energy is energy that comes directly from the sun. The sun is a constant natural source of heat and light, and its radiation can be converted to electricity. This source will last for at least a billion years (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2010). First photovoltaic (PV) solar panels have been designed and used mainly in space technologies, as the production costs of such panels were very high. As the time passes, the photovoltaic cells can be produced cheaper and cheaper and their efficiency is rising (Nese and Grenci, 2011). This is also a reason why they are being used much more frequently and it is not rare to see them on the rooftops any more. The future offers even bigger possibilities, as new thin plastic solar cells are being developed with prospects of cheap large scale production using printing technology (William T. et al., 2010).
    Photovoltaic solar systems can be divided into two basic categories grid connected and off-grid(also stand alone or isolated) solar systems. The grid connected systems feed the electricity produced by solar panels to the grid using an inverter. When the electricity is needed during night or periods with little sunlight, the energy is taken back from grid (AlekIndra, 2011). In isolated systems, the excess electricity is usually stored in batteries during the day and batteries are used to power the appliances in times when photovoltaic panels do not produce enough energy. A photovoltaic (PV) system may be a combination of several components such as a battery system, DC/AC conversion circuits and other power conditioning devices, in addition to the solar panels themselves (Piao, Z.G. et al., 2005).
    A lead-acid battery is an electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy. Using lead-acid battery charge can be stored more swiftly by grid connected system. A dc chopper converts directly from dc to dc and is also known as a dc-to-dc converter. A dc chopper circuit can be considered as dc equivalent to a transformer with a continuously variable turn ratio. Like a transformer, it can be used to step-down or step-up a dc voltage source. Here a dc-to-dc converter is used to charge the battery sufficiently. The information presenting in this body of work concentrates more on the electronic means of enhancing energy efficiency in a PV system as well as describing energy storage and power grid integration techniques. This branch of power electronics is generally called power conditioning and in the present case is used to describe the management of electrical energy to effectively charge batteries, draw maximum power from the solar panels or provide a high quality AC output.

    Today the micro-grid for solar home system has turned out to be a very promising solution for remote places of Nigeria where the grid supply has not reached yet. In this regard our conventional solar home system charge controller is asking for a solid and innovative solution to accommodate variety of solar panels with different voltage level for micro grid. So far the solar home system charge controller we have in the present market is customized for 15V panel mostly. Looking at this problem we tried to come up with a new charge controller, based on DC to DC fly-back converter which enables the system to use any voltage level solar panel and charge the same 12V battery. One of the other important features of this charge controller is that, as it allows the system to use high voltage panel like 48V, the copper loss from panel to charge controller is much smaller compared to other system. As the charge controller remains with the battery, the panel to charge controller wire loss dominates the total system loss and therefore our proposed charge controller can make the conventional solar home system more efficient and more effective.
    An important aspect of the solar electricity setup is the charge controller. It is inevitable when mentioning solar electricity as it forms an integral part of the solar electricity family. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining (deep discharging) a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life. Because the intensity of sunlight fluctuates throughout the day, the output voltage of a solar panel fluctuates as well. In addition, because of this fluctuation, a solar panel is padded with more cells to compensate for times when the intensity of sunlight is low.
    The intensity from the sun fluctuates all day which increases or decreases the current and voltage entering the battery and leads to its damage and shorter life-span. This gave rise to the invention of the charge controller which regulates the voltage and current to keep the batteries from overcharging and also deals with reverse current. The Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) as an advancement of the charge controller family helps to maximize the voltage from the solar array and provide stabilized voltage for the battery.

    1.3.1 Aim
    This project is aimed at assembling a solar battery with charge controller to effectively regulate the current and voltage coming from the photovoltaic into the battery bank ensuring efficient power supply and longevity.
    1.3.2 Objectives
    The main aim shall be achieved by:
    Constructing a working circuit diagram for the proposed charge controller
    Getting the necessary components needed to realize the set project
    Programming the microcontroller to track the output power of the MPPT while comparing the output voltage with the battery voltage and preventing the battery from overcharging.
    Monitoring the LCD to ensure the display matches the current behaviour of the system

    The assemblage of solar battery with charge controller is of great significance as it gives the students a hands-on experience on modern day electrical/electronic equipment. It serves to broaden the students horizon and to unveil the challenges and possible flaws that are associated with charge controllers in the market while encouraging more research into the field.
    The charge controller is applied in the following areas:
    Charging the batteries used in solar home system, hospitals or industries
    Solar lantern in rural area
    Cell phone charging

    This project work covers only the assemblage of a solar battery with charge controller for the regulation of current and voltage coming into the battery bank. The design takes into cognizance of the fact that the charge controller is a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) charge controller which is more efficient..

    To achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:
    Construct a fly back converter as the charge controller of solar home system.
    Simulate this DC to DC converter circuit in LTSPICE simulation platform.
    Then implement it in the PCB board. PCB board is designed in express PCB platform.
    For easy and better understanding a simplified block diagram of this system is illustrated below;

    Simplified block diagram of the model Charge controller
    A block diagram of a solar battery with charge controller

    Fig. 1.0: Simplified block diagram of the model.

    RELAY: This is an electromagnetic switch. Switching on/off of relays is based on the flow of current through its coil. Relay is used for switching on/off various high voltage circuits. Changeover switch.
    TRANSFORMER: This a device used for stepping up and down of voltages. Transformer is one of the most important components of the automatic changeover switch. The job of the transformer is to step down 220v to15v as the output of the automatic changeover switch.
    RECTIFIERS: The rectifier circuit consists of a rectifies in series with the AC input to rectifies and the load requiring the DC output i.e. it convert AC to DC.
    DIODE: These are two terminal devices which exhibit low resistance to current flow in one direction and hinder resistance to resistance to current in the other direction. Diode is electronic components.
    CAPACITORS: These are passive components that provide a means of storing electrical energy in form of an electric field.
    REGULATOR: These are device that are used control the rate of current or voltage that from in a process.
    LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED): This is a small semiconductor devices which emit light when small forward current is applied to them.
    RESISTORS: These are defines as devices that alter or resist the flow of current in an electric circuit.
    POWER OUTAGE/ POWER FAILURE: is the loss of the electrical power network supply to an end user.
    AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER: is device that automatically transfers power from generator supply to PHCN supply when available and stops the generator without human intervention.


    Renewable energy is energy created from natural sources. This includes sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat. With global warming, such as climate change, concerns linked to high oil prices, the drive for more renewable energy is being lobbied by local governments (Ch. Brunner, 2002). Not only would renewable energy help with the global warming concerns, but also may help turn around the recent economic crisis. This would mean less money spent on expensive fossil fuels and more focus on renewable energy sources. So world energy now requires renewable sources to sustain more power accuracy in future. Among the natural sources sunlight is more essential to mankind. Using this source power can be generated within cheap rate (M. Gohul, et al., 2009). Power failure in Bangladesh is a major issue and this condition is degrading with time. People are making themselves dependent on power backup machines such as Instant Power Supply (IPS), generator, Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) etc. These machines have a high market value and besides they require expensive maintenance such as fuelling the generator at regular interval, high electricity bill for charging an IPS, checking the distilled water in IPS. Still there are many rural areas in third world countries where the power transmission lines have not been provided yet. As a consequence people leaving over those areas have no other way but to suffer from lack of electricity using the energy of sun, solar panels at home, is the best solution to all these problems. To make this system more efficient and cost-effective it is better to use a dc-dc converter to charge a battery instead of using a simple charge controller (Sabuj D.G., et al., 2014).
    There are some conventional charge controllers, which have some problems of charging system. So these charge controllers cannot charge batteries at some extent. To overcome these problems a new type of dc to dc converter, naming fly back converter has been introduced. A block diagram of the conventional charge controller is given below:

    A block diagram of the conventional charge controller
    Conventional charge controller

    Fig. 2.1: Conventional charge controller.
    The conventional charge controller of solar home system has the following disadvantages:

    1. it provides inadequate current during low sunlight.
    2. It cannot support a solar panel of high voltage.
    3. In the conventional charge controller excessive power loss occurs in the transmission line between solar panel and charge controller.
    4. In the conventional system the panel gets shorted when the battery is completely charged, which affects the panel longevity.
    5. In this circuit MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) cannot be introduced (Sabuj D.G., et al., 2014).

    To overcome these shortcomings, a new type of dc to dc converter (fly back converter) is introduced. The advantages of using this converter over the conventional charge controller are:

    1. It can take variable panel voltage.
    2. Its efficiency is better than the conventional one as it reduces wire loss.
    3. It is suitable for micro-grid.
    4. No panel- short circuit occurs here.
    5. It is possible to add MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) with our system (Sabuj D.G., et al., 2014).

    2.2 OVERVIEW
    A charge controller is needed in photovoltaic system to safely charge sealed lead acid battery. The most basic function of a charge controller is to prevent battery overcharging. If battery is allowed to routinely overcharge, their life expectancy will be dramatically reduced. A charge controller will sense the battery voltage, and reduce or stop the charging current when the voltage gets high enough. This is especially important with sealed lead acid battery where we cannot replace the water that is lost during overcharging. Unlike Wind or Hydro System charge controller, PV charge controller can open the circuit when the battery is full without any harm to the modules. Most PV charge controller simply opens or restricts the circuit between the battery and PV array when the voltage rises to a set point. Then, as the battery absorbs the excess electrons and voltage begins dropping, the controller will turn back on. Some charge controllers have these voltage points factory-preset and non-adjustable, other controllers can be adjustable (German, 2016).
    Electricity generations of solar panels are strongly related with solar radiation intensity. However the intensity is not stable. Therefore, charge efficiency is a very important topic in solar systems. Charge controllers are designed to improve charge efficiency and safety. The figure 2.2 below shows the front view of a typical charge controller:

    Fig. 2.2: Front View of a PV Charge Controller
    [source: intelligent charge controller design]Where:

    1. Battery LED indicator
    2. LCD display
    3. Reset button
    4. Temperature sensor
    5. 12V DC load terminal with Low Voltage Disconnect
    6. 12V battery connection terminal
    7. PV panel connection terminal
    8. Remote Signal Terminal
    9. Side Door (open to access switches for settings)

    The primary function of a charge controller is to protect the battery from overcharge and over discharge in a stand-alone PV system (REN, 2016). There are a lot of studies about the charge controller in the literature.
    Harrington and Dunlop (1992) analyzed the typical strategies for battery charge regulation in stand-alone PV systems and conclude that the battery information is very important in designing PV systems. Ullah focused on the design of a super-fast battery charger based on Nationals proprietary neural network based neural fuzzy technology in 1996. They compared their method with conventional fast chargers and indicate that their method reduce the charging time (Tam Hunt, 2015).
    Masheleni and Carelse in 1997 designed an intelligent charge controller, incorporating an SGSThompson microcontroller, ST62E20 and discussed the advantages of such charge controllers. Hsieh in 2001 proposed a fuzzy-controlled active state of- charge controller (FC-ASCC) for improving the charging behaviour of a lithiumion (Liion) battery. In this method, a fuzzy-controlled algorithm is built with the predicted charger performance to program the charging trajectory faster and to remain the charge operation in a proposed safe-charge area (SCA). They increased the charging speed about 23%. Yi presented a novel switch-mode charger controller IC in 2007 for improve the charging efficiency of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery and save its life.
    They achieved fast transient response and the precisions of both constant current and constant voltage charge modes met the specifications well (Bullis, K., 2006).
    Chiang (2009) presented the modeling and controller design of the PV charger system implemented with the single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) and gave a detailed modeling of the SEPIC with the PV module input and peak-current-mode control. The system has been proved to be effective in the MPPT and power balance control. The MPPT controller was implemented with the Matlab real-time control in their study.
    Tesfahunegn (2011) proposed a new solar/battery charge controller that combines both MPPT and overvoltage controls as single control function. They conducted two case studies in Simulink/Simpower, first to evaluate the performance of the designed controller in terms of transient response and voltage overshoot. Secondly, realistic irradiance data is used to evaluate the performance of the developed charge controller in terms of parameters such as PV energy utilization factor and overvoltage compared to the conventional hysteretic on/off controller. They achieved good transient response with only small voltage overshoot, better in terms PV energy utilization and same level of overvoltage control (Bazilian M. et al., 2013).
    Dakkak and Hasan (2012) analyzed a charge controller based on microcontroller in stand-alone PV systems and concluded that such systems reduce the power consumption for charging battery and give flexibility to the designer (Swanson, 2009).
    Karami (2012) focused on the load type and suggest new methods to reach the MPP depending on the load state and the development of the PV array mathematical model. They analyzed the effect of temperature and irradiance on the battery charger and showed the difference between the direct-coupled and the indirect-coupled applications of a PV panel (Branker, K. et al., 2011).

    In the review of a charge controller, one must not fail to mention that the charge controller is a part of the solar family set-up and this solar family set-up make up the complete system description. This solar family setup is briefly reviewed below and consists of:

    • Solar panel
    • Battery
    • Charge controller
    • Maximum Power Point Tracker
    • DC DC converter

    2.3.1 Solar Panel
    A solar panel is a packaged connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Solar panels use light energy photon from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer based cells or thin film cells based on non-magnetic conductive transition metals, telluride or silicon. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels may contain silver, copper or other nonmagnetic conductive transition metals. The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of light frequencies, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet and low or diffused light).
    Hence, much of the incident sun light energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. The figure below shows the interconnection of solar panels.

    Plate 2.3: Interconnection of solar panels [source: Fort Benning Solar]

    The advantages of solar panels are:

    • They are the most readily available solar technology.
    • They can last a lifetime.
    • They are required little maintenance.
    • They operate best on bright days with little or no obstruction to incident sunlight.

    2.3.2 Battery
    In stand-alone photovoltaic system, the electrical energy produced by the PV array cannot always be used when it is produced because the demand for energy does not always coincide with its production. Electrical storage batteries are commonly used in PV system. The figure below shows a typical 12V 200Ah solar battery:

    Plate 2.4: A typical solar battery [source: kingdom power company]

    The primary functions of a storage battery in a PV system are:

    1. Energy Storage Capacity and Autonomy: to store electrical energy when it is produced by the PV array and to supply energy to electrical loads as needed or on demand.
    2. Voltage and Current Stabilization: to supply power to electrical loads at stable voltages and currents, by suppressing or smoothing out transients that may occur in PV system.
    3. Supply Surge Currents: to supply surge or high peak operating currents to electrical loads or appliances.

    2.3.3 Charge Controller
    A charge controller or charge regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining (“deep discharging”) a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life. The figure 2.5 below shows a typical charge controller.

    Plate 2.5: A typical charge controller [source: china solar power]
    In simple words, Solar Charge controller is a device, which controls the battery charging from solar cell and also controls the battery drain by load. The simple Solar Charge controller checks the battery whether it requires charging and if yes it checks the availability of solar power and starts charging the battery. Whenever controller found that the battery has reached the full charging voltage levels, it then stops the charging from solar cell. On the other hand, when it found no solar power available then it assumes that it is night time and switch on the load. It keeps on the load until the battery reached to its minimum voltage levels to prevent the battery dip-discharge (Encyclobeamia.solarbotics.net). Simultaneously Charge controller also gives the indications like battery dip discharge, load on, charging on etc.
    In this design we are using microcontroller based charge controller. Microcontroller is a kind of miniature computer containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.

    The Functions of a microcontroller in charge controller are:

    1. Measures Solar Cell Voltage.
    2. Measures Battery Voltage.
    3. Decides when to start battery charging.
    4. Decides when to stop battery charging.
    5. Decides when to switch on the load.
    6. Decides when to switch off the load.
    7. Most importantly in this design, microcontroller also tracks the MPP of the output power.

    2.3.4 Maximum Power Point Tracker
    The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is now prevalent in grid-tied PV power system and is becoming more popular in stand-alone systems. MPPT is a power electronic device interconnecting a PV power source and a load, maximizes the power output from a PV module or array with varying operating conditions, and therefore maximizes the system efficiency (www.Encyclobeamia.solarbotics.net.).
    MPPT is made up with a switch-mode DC-DC converter and a controller. For grid-tied systems, a switch-mode inverter sometimes fills the role of MPPT. Otherwise, it is combined with a DC-DC converter that performs the MPPT function.
    2.3.5 DC-DC Converter
    DC-DC converters are power electronic circuits that convert a dc voltage to a different dc voltage level, often providing a regulated output. The key ingredient of MPPT hardware is a switch-mode DC-DC converter. It is widely used in DC power supplies and DC motor drives for the purpose of converting unregulated DC input into a controlled DC output at a desired voltage level.
    MPPT uses the same converter for a different purpose, regulating the input voltage at the PV MPP and providing load matching for the maximum power transfer. There are a number of different topologies for DC-DC converters. In this design we are using DC-DC converter as it is obtained by using the duality principle on the circuit of a boost converter (www.Encyclobeamia.solarbotics.net.).

    2.4.1 Working Principle of a Charge Controller
    The basic components of a solar charge controller (especially that used for this design) are:

    • Microcontroller
    • Boost converter
    • MOSFET
    • Voltage sensor
    • Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
    • Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    There are other components like the power inductor, capacitors, resistors, diodes etcetera. The working circuit diagram is shown in the figure below:

    Figure 2.6: Working circuit diagram of a charge controller (source: solar energy Centre)

    From the circuit diagram above, it can be seen that the voltage from the solar panel first comes to the boost converter circuit which does the job of stepping up the input DC voltage to get a higher DC output voltage if the input voltage is lower than the specified rating (12V in this case). The boost converter is connected to the voltage sensor which is further interconnected to the microcontroller. The function of the microcontroller has already been established earlier in this chapter.
    The LED indicates when the charge controller is charging the battery and when it is fully charged while the LCD displays the battery voltage and panel input voltage. Generally, there are two types of charge controllers namely:

    • The Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
    • The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

    2.4.2 Pulse Width Modulation Charge Controller
    Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) charge controllers are simple and more affordable. It uses a series of pulses to charge the battery. It regulates the voltage by varying the width of the pulse. If it wants to increase the voltage, it increases the pulse width and when it wants to lower the voltage, it reduces the pulse width (Palz, W., 2013).
    The technology behind Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) charge controllers is one of the most popular charge controller technologies on the market today. A time-tested technology that has been used for many years in solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries, it is also needed for wind, hydro, fuel, or utility grid. PWM charge controllers are inexpensive (when compared to MPPT charge controllers), available in different amperages, and highly durable. PWMs help to regulate often inconsistent voltage put out by power sources (for example solar panels) in order to protect the system batteries from overcharging. When the solar array has the PWM mode activated, the charge controller uniquely handles the job of battery charging by constantly checking the current battery and self-adjusting accordingly to send only the right amount of charge to the battery.
    This type of charge controller works by reducing the current from the power source according to the batterys condition and recharging requirements. The PWM charge controller does this by checking the state of the battery to determine both how long (wide) the pulses should be as well as how fast they should come (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009). With this information, the PWM charge controller then self-adjusts and sends the appropriate pulse to charge the battery it varies the length and speed of the pulses sent to the battery as needed. This is a rapid on and off switch. When the battery is nearly discharged, the pulses may be long and continuous, and as it becomes charged, the pulses become shorter or trickled off. This trickle or finish type charging mode is important for systems that can go days or weeks with excess energy during periods when very little of the solar energy is consumed (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009).
    This type of charge controller is ideal for solar arrays where excess energy is a regular occurrence, and provide several key benefits: higher charging efficiency, rapid recharging, and healthier batteries that operate at full capacity.
    Traditional systems for charging solar system batteries relied on on-off regulators to limit battery out gassing during periods of excess energy production, but this often resulted in early battery failures and increased load disconnects. With a PWM algorithm, the charge controller can slowly reduce the charging current to prevent problems like gassing and overheating of the battery (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009). The benefits are thus:

    1. Battery Aging Adjustments: By automatically adjusting to the batterys needs, a PWM charge controller will overcome traditional problems with charge acceptance seen in older batteries.
    2. Battery Gassing and Heat Reductions: By recharging more quickly than other charge controllers, a PWM avoids problems with gassing and heating which damage the battery.
    3. Charge Acceptance Increase: Charge acceptance is a necessity with solar system batteries, though this has typically been a problem in solar arrays. A PWM algorithm, however, increases the charge acceptance of the battery so that more of the energy generated by the array gets captured.
    4. Drifting Battery Cell Equalization: Many PWM charge controllers hold battery cells in better balance through equalization, which evens out the acceptance of charge to avoid capacity deterioration.
    5. High Battery Capacity Maintenance: The state-of-charge should remain high in order to maintain a healthy system and preserve the life of the battery. PWM algorithms provide better battery capacity maintenance due to the increased number of charge/discharge cycles.
    6. Lost Battery Recovery: Sulfation of lead-acid batteries in solar systems is a significant problem due to extended undercharging, which results in grid corrosion and sulfate crystal formation on the batterys positive plates. PWM charge controllers have been shown to recover lost capacity over time by deterring sulfate deposit formation, and pushing through corrosion at the interface.
    7. Self-Regulation with Drops in Voltage or Temperature: Older charge controllers can be negatively impacted by temperature effects or voltage drops, creating problems with the final charge of the battery. But a PWM charge controller will taper the charge to minimize these impacts.
    8. Taken together, these PWM advantages can be very attractive to PV owners looking for a simpler way to manage their solar set-up.

    2.5.1 Maximum Power Point Tracker Charge Controller
    The MPPT charge controller tries to keep the voltage and the power stable. The MPPT charge controller will harvest more power from the solar array it will adjust its input voltage to harvest the maximum power from the solar array and the transform this power to supply the varying voltage requirement of the battery plus load (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009).
    An MPPT charge controller is an electronic DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar array (PV panels), and the battery bank or utility grid. To put it simply they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries or vice-versa. Maximum Power Point Tracking is electronic tracking usually digital. The charge controller looks at the output of the panels, and compares it to the battery voltage. It then figures out what is the best power that the panel can put out to charge the battery. It takes this and converts it to the best voltage to get maximum amps into the battery. Most modern MPPTs are around 93-97% efficient in the conversion (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009).
    The power point tracker is a high frequency DC to DC converter. They take the DC input from the solar panels, change it to high frequency AC, and convert it back down to a different DC voltage and current followed by the output regulator to exactly match the panels to the batteries. MPPTs operate at very high audio frequencies, usually in the 20-100kHZ range. The advantage of high frequency circuits is that they can be designed with very high efficiency transformers and small components. The design of high frequency circuits can be very tricky because of problems with portions of the circuit broadcasting just like a radio transmitter, causing radio and TV interference. Noise isolation and suppression becomes very important.
    2.5.2 Effectiveness of the MPPT
    MPPTs are most effective under these conditions:

    • Winter, and/or cloudy or hazy days – when the extra power is needed the most.
    • Cold weather – solar panels work better at cold temperatures, but without a MPPT you are losing most of that. Cold weather is most likely in winter – the time when sun hours are low and you need the power to recharge batteries the most.
    • Low battery charge – the lower the state of charge in your battery, the more current an MPPT puts into them – another time when the extra power is needed the most. You can have both of these conditions at the same time.
    • Long wire runs – If you are charging a 12 volt battery, and your panels are 100 feet away, the voltage drop and power loss can be considerable unless you use very large wire. That can be very expensive. But if you have four 12V panels wired in series for 48 volts, the power loss is much less, and the controller will convert that high voltage to 12 volts at the battery. That also means that if you have a high voltage panel setup feeding the controller, you can use much smaller wire.

    2.5.3 Smart Power Trackers
    Charge controllers for solar panels need to be a lot more smart as light and temperature conditions vary continuously all day long, and battery voltage changes All recent models of digital MPPT controllers available are microprocessor controlled. They know when to adjust the output that is being sent to the battery, and they actually shut down for a few microseconds and look at the solar panel and battery and make any needed adjustments.
    Although not really new (the Australian company AERL had some as early as 1985), it has been only recently that electronic microprocessors have become cheap enough to be cost effective in smaller systems (less than 1kW of panel). MPPT charge controllers are now manufactured by several companies, such as Outback Power, Xantrex XW-SCC, Blue Sky Energy, Apollo Solar, Midnite Solar, Morningstar and a few others (Jacobson, M.Z. 2009).
    2.5.4 Preference of MPPT Charge Controller over PWM for the design
    MPPT is at least 30% more efficient than PWM. PWM have been around for ages and rely on old technology. They work to match the voltage of the panel to battery voltage and pulls down the panel output voltage in doing so.
    Another downside to the PWM is that it also creates interference in radios and TVs due to the sharp pulses that it generates.
    The MPPT charge controllers offer a potential increase in charging percentages, offers up to 80 amps sizes, MPPT charge controller warranties are typically longer than PWM and offer great flexibility for system growth.


    3.1 Brief Outline of the Chapter
    This chapter includes the research methodology, different forms of component that make up the solar photovoltaic system such as the battery bank, the solar charger controller and the load (appliance) were. Also discussed.

    The first step in understanding a solar photovoltaic system is to find out total power and energy consumption of all loads that are needed to be supplied by the solar photovoltaic system as follow:
    Calculating the total watt hour per day needed from the photovoltaic modules.
    This is done by multiplying the total appliances with hours per day the energy loss factor in the system to get total watt- hours per day which must be delivered to the appliances.
    These following stages were adopted:

    • Power supply
    • Power Transformer
    • Voltage Regulator
    • The Inverter Stage
    • Inverter Sizing

    All electronic equipment needed to be energized by means of electric power supply. An inverter uses a 12V accumulated battery.

    It supplies 12V to the input of the voltage regulator that regulates it to a stable and constant supply to power the control circuit.

    A transformer is a device of two coils called primary and secondary coil. The Alternating Current voltage applied to the primary coil appears across the secondary coil by electromagnetic induction.

    Power transformers convert incoming Alternating current (AC) power from the incoming voltage to a different voltage by a process called electromagnetic induction, the generation of an electric current by passing metal wire through a magnetic field used in electronic circuit; they generally provide power to an electronic device at a steady voltage, solving the problem of voltage fluctuation (Electrical 4u (2014).

    Fig. 3. 1 Transformer

    If the input (primary) has more turn than the output, the secondary voltage is smaller than the primary voltage.
    Ns =number of turn in secondary
    Np=number of turn in primary
    Ep=primary voltage / input voltage
    Es=secondary voltage / output voltage
    Is=secondary current
    Ip=primary current


    A voltage regulator is piece of equipments designed for the maintenance of a constant level of voltage. Several types of voltage regulator exist and has their own advantages and disadvantages. Most voltage regulator work by using an internal fixed voltage as a reference to be compared to the voltage being put out.
    Voltage regulator is an integrated circuit component that gives a constant output voltage supply. Voltage regulator can be divided into fixed and adjustable regulator. The three terminals of the fixed voltage regulator are the input, common and the output terminals while those of the adjustable voltage regulator are the input, output and adjustment terminals.

    There are four types of voltage regulator
    Series pass regulators are considered the least effective of voltage regulator. Its power is continuously dissipated. Thus making it more reliable than other type.
    They are more efficient than the series types because, their power is usually none dissipated until the battery approaches full capacity.
    The step down series switch regulator, like the series type regulator, increases efficiency at the voltage output increases. The increases complexity of the circuitry, however, makes this type less reliable than either the series pass or shut type.
    It has the highest efficiency as a result of its complex circuitry. That complexity makes the cost of this type of regulator so high that its impractical to use for certain purposes.


    • Capacitor
    • Resistor
    • Diode
    • Transistor

    The inverter unit is made of, sourcing, regulating, oscillating, driving, transformation, output, change over, battery charger, and MOSFET driver.
    SOURCING STAGE: This stage consists mainly of direct current (D.C) battery and in this case is from solar panel . The battery provides 12V direct current (D. C) supply to the inverter system when the alternating current (A. C) from the main supply fails.
    REGULATING STAGE : The regulating stage consists of an Integrated Circuit voltage regulator. This is a three pm 9V. integrated Circuit voltage regulator it is a simple precision regulator that regulates the supplied voltage of 12V from battery. The regulated voltage is then used by the oscillator to come on.
    OSCILLATING STAGE: The oscillating stage is the heart of inverter design. An oscillator is essentially an electronic circuit designed to produce an alternating current signal of the known frequency and wave form. The inverter system needs to generate signal at 50Hz as which is sent driver for amplification through the pin 11 and 14 Integrated Circuit.
    DRIVING STAGE: The driving stage is required to drive the current derived from the output of the oscillator to the amplifier. The stage consists of metallic oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) which has high impedance.

    The transistor user are both PNP and NPN transistor which are connected in a push-pull arrangement. The MOSFET driver stage does not match the oscillator to amplifier but also ensure that the stage of the MOSFET when in parallel are properly isolated from each other even when they are driven by the gate of the MOSFETs which result in the MOSFETS channel being alternatively switched on and off. That its when one second MOSFET channel which is a crucial process in the outlet section is repeatedly 50 tons per seconds that is at frequency of 50Hz.
    TRANSFORMATION STAGE: Here, a step-up transformer is used. It is a type of transformer used for increasing voltage supply to the output. The step-up transformer consists of two coils called primary and secondary coils, wounded round a soft iron that is made of sheet of soft iron.
    The secondary coil of this type of transformer is however greater than the number of turns in the primary coil.

    The primary winding of the step-up transformer is 24V-0V-240V and the secondary winding is transferred to the socket outlet of the output of the inverter system.
    OUTPUT STAGE: In this stage, the Alternating Current voltage produced by the inverter reaches socket output the action of the pulse width modulation (PWM) of the Integrated Circuit, Also, the expected load is connected through this socket outlet so as to power it.

    CHANGE OVER STAGE: The change over stage takes the center stage when the alternating current main supply is off, then the yellow led indicator comes on indicating that the inverter has started to operate on the battery mode and when the alternating current supply returns, the green led indicator is on then inverter.

    The solar charge controller is typically against amperage and voltage of photovoltaic away and batteries then identify which type of solar charge controller is right for the application. The solar charge controller must have enough capability to handle the current from photovoltaic arrays.

    For the series charge controller type, the sizing of controlled depends on the total photovoltaic input current which is delivered to the controller and depends also or photovoltaic panel configuration (series or parallel configuration). According to the standard practice, the sizing of solar charge controller is to take the start circuit (ISC) of the photovoltaic array and multiply it by 1.3 solar charge controller =(total short circuit current rating of VP x 1.3)


    Fig. 3.2 Block Diagram of a solar battery charger

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  • Project write-up on Construction of Keypad Access Control Lock With Card



    JULY 2021.


    This is to certify that this project work “CONSTRUCTION OF KRYPAD ACCESS CONTROL LOCK WITH CARD” was carried out by the following students of the department of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.


    This project is dedicated to God Almighty, the author of wisdom, understanding and knowledge


    We give glory, honor and adoration to almighty God, who is the Alpha and Omega who had made it easier for us through this project.
    We also appreciate our supervisor MR. M. O. AYENI for his effort, encouragement, advice and support, when we undertake this project our sincere gratitude also goes to our parents, siblings and those who contribute immensely to the completion of the project.


    The main purpose of this project is to design and implement a system based on a password using Radio-Frequency Identification RFID. This system is basically a password and an RFID based access-control system which permits only an authorized person to unlock. For doing this, the system will activate and authenticate the user. Application of a security system via a passive ID number form RFID tag was used. Then enter the password from a keypad, if the ID number of the tag and password are correct, then it will unlock. The aim of constructing this system is to put in place a formidable locker security system with low cost and free of errors. Keywords – RFID Reader, Atmega328p, Keypad, LCD, Buzzer. The security system plays a significant role to keep out unknown users to access protected physical and logical places with no permission. Furthermore, unwanted people can hack the lock and have access to the protected place. It can further be use for smart cart can be interfaced with wireless technologies to make it completely portable in the nearest future.


    Title page i
    Certification ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgement iv
    Abstract v
    Table of content vi-x
    1.0 Introduction 1
    1.1 Background of Study 1-2
    1.2 Statement of Problem 2
    1.3 Research Objectives 3
    1.4 Expected Contribution to Knowledge 3
    1.5 Limitations/Scope of Project 3-4
    1.6 Methodology 4
    Definition of Terms 4-6
    2.0 Literature Review 7
    2.1 Brief Outline of the Chapter 7
    2.2 Historical Background of the Project 7-10
    2.3 Theories/Concept Related to Project 10-11
    2.3.1 Readers 11
    2.3.2 Signaling 11-12
    3.0 Research Methodology 13
    3.1 Brief Outline of the Chapter 13
    3.2 Research Design 13
    3.3 Block by Block, Unit by Unit Design of the Project 13 -14
    3.3.1. Radio-frequency Identification 14-15
    3.3.2 Keypad 15-16
    3.3.4. A Microcontroller 16-18
    3.3.4. LCD 18-19
    3.3.5 Solenoid Lock 19-21
    4.0 Principle of Operation 22
    4.1 A brief Outline of the Chapter 22
    4.2 Principle of Operation of the Project 22
    4.3 Explanation of the various unit (block) in the Project 22
    4.3.1 The power supply Unit 22-24
    4.3.2 Micro Controller Unit 24
    4.3.3. RFID reader Unit 25
    4.3.4 Keypad Unit 25

    5.0 Construction of the Design Project 26
    5.1 Brief Outline of the Chapter 26
    5.2 Choice of Materials 26-30
    5.3 Construction of the Project 31
    5.4 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 31
    5.5 Test and Result 32-33
    6.0 Conclusion, Summary and Recommendations 34
    6.1 Summary of the Project Chapter by Chapter 34
    6.2 Problems Encountered 34-35
    6.3 Recommendation 35-36
    6.4 Conclusion 36

    Fig 2.1 RFID hard tag 11
    FIG 3.1 Block diagram of the construction of keypad access control lock with card and buzzer alarm system 13
    Fig 3.2 RFID Module 14
    Fig 3.3 RFID Tag 15
    Fig 3.4 KEYPAD Module 16
    Fig 3.5 ATMega328P Pin out 17
    Fig 3.6 LCD Module 18
    Fig 3.7 Solenoid Lock 20
    Fig 4.1 Schematic Diagram of Keypad Access Control Lock with Card 21
    Fig 4.2 Circuit diagram of Power Supply Unit 22
    Fig 4.2 Pin Configuration 24
    Fig 4.3 RFID reader unit 25
    Fig 4.4 Keypad 25
    Fig 5.1 Construction of the Project 31
    Fig 5.2 Testing of the Project 33

    Table 5.1: Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 32

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    A Project write-up on Solar Powered Mobile Phone Charger


  • A Project write-up on Solar Powered Mobile Phone Charger

    This project, solar powered mobile phone charger is designed for use in mobile phones and other gadgets which uses a 5v input for charging. The circuit makes use of a microprocessor (LM256T-ADJ) to create a buck converter which steps down the voltage from the solar panel to suit the level of voltage needed by the mobile phone. The use of this charger guarantee’s the safety of mobile phones being charged as it is being charged in range and at one’s comfort



    Portable Solar Mobile Phone Charger is a power electronic device that converts the sun’s radiation into electrical energy for the purpose of charging the batteries of mobile phones. It does this by converting, controlling and conditioning the flow of electrical energy from source (solar panel) to load (mobile phone) according to the requirements of the load.
    In a densely populated, poverty-stricken country with a population of over 160 million people in the case of Nigeria, it is unarguable that the epileptic state of power supply is an issue of great concern to Nigerians. Citizens find it very difficult to charge their phones when they eventually have a flat battery. We are now left with the option of putting on a generating set (Generator) which causes air pollution and depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer (greenhouse effect), generators are also very expensive to operate due to the hike in price of petrol in the country. The option of charging through public charging centers is inconvenient as most times these centers are crowded and employ the use of a generator as well. Theft of mobile phones is prevalent with charging centers and fire outbreaks in many cases due to overload of supplying cables and very unprofessional connections done in order to realize money as quickly as possible.

    Most country are faced with many challenges ranging from air pollution due to smoke from some source of power supply. Lack of effective and reliable power supply system.
    The epileptic and incessant power supply in Nigeria in this case Owerri imo state in particular has necessitated once need for this project, cause most student and people always on stand-alone generators to charge up their phone and appliances which can be charge using the USB ported solar charger.
    So, there is a need to design and construct the solar panel charger which will complement the electricity supply from the public grid because the reduction injunctive and capacitive load. It is less noisy and does not have any consequence(s) on human health
    1.3.1 Aim:
    The aim of this project is to design a cost effective solar powered mobile phone charger, which has a USB port and can also be used to charger other appliance with same input or charging mode
    1.3.2 Objectives:
    The following are specific objective
    i. To design a portable solar charger.
    ii. To construct the designed solar mobile phone charger.
    iii. To evaluate the performance of the designed charge

    The project completion will be of great help to country if adopted, in order to maintain a stable power source for mobile phones in country. The use of solar power has advantages firstly the energy from the sun is free and readily accessible in most part of the world. More over the sun will keep shining until end. Also, silicon from which most photovoltaic cell are made is in abundant and nontoxic element. The whole energy conversion process is environmentally friendly.
    It produces no-noise, harmful emission or polluting gases. The burning of natural resource of energy can create Smoke, cause acid rain and pollute water and air



    A lot of research work has been carried out on the design of a cost-effective solar power charger. Engr Chinedu P.A Okwaraokwa, Engr Azubogu and Engr M.I Ariguzo researched on a cost effective solar charger controller for lithium ion battery using 555 time IC in 2016. in this work an 8 watt photovoltaic (PV) Panel successfully used to charge a lithium ion battery using a custom designed and constructed pulse width modulated(PWM) solar charge controller . The charger controller includes automatic cut off to prevent battery overcharge (international journal of electrical and telecommunication system research.
    Anurag project a channel on you tube did similar work on the project on 2021, he used 1c78056x1, capacitor 1000ufx2, diode 1n 4007×1, resistor 1kx1 ledx1, USB female port connector x1 and a solar panel 6x2w to construct the project as shown in the diagram.

    Design and construction of a portable solar mobile charger

    Figure 2.1
    Design and construction of a portable solar mobile charger by salim mudi in the department of telecommunication engineering, federal university of technology, mina Nigeria (2018). The charger was made by converting, controlling and condition the flow of electrical energy from source to load according to the requirement of the load.

    2.2.1. Solar panel
    Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity. They are called “solar” panels because most of the time, the most powerful source of light available is the Sun, called Sol by astronomers. Some scientists call them photovoltaic’s which means, basically, “light-electricity”.
    A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits the cell, the more electricity it produces. Solar panels generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of an electric solar energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that generate electricity from sunlight. The photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon wafers. A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 (.5) of a volt. Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to increase current capacity (more power) and wired in series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even higher voltage systems. The advantage of using a higher voltage output at the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be used to transfer the electric power from the solar panel array to the charge controller & batteries Embark electronics.
    The solar panel is made up of the following:
    The semiconductor material which absorbs light and converts it into electron-hole pairs.
    The junction formed within the semiconductor, which separates the photo-generated carriers (Electrons and holes).
    The contacts on the front and back of the cell that allow the current to flow to the external circuit.
    The glass sheet that protects the semiconductors and also prevent reflection of the sun rays.
    The frame that holds the whole component together as one component.
    The terminals where the generated direct current is tapped from.

    Diagram of Cell- Module- Panel
    Cell- Module- Panel

    Figure 2.2.1 Shows Cell- Module- Panel- Array

    Multiple modules can be wired together to form an array. In general, the larger the area of a module or array, the more electricity that will be produced. Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct-current (dc) electricity.

    2.2.2 Types of Solar Panels
    Basically, there are three basic types of solar panels and they include;
    Monocrystalline Solar Panels
    Polycrystalline Solar Panels
    Amorphous solar panels

    Monocrystalline Solar Panels: The most efficient and expensive solar panels are made with Monocrystalline cells. These solar cells use very pure silicon and involve a complicated crystal growth process. Long silicon rods are produced which are cut into slices of .2 to .4 mm thick discs or wafers which are then processed into individual cells that are wired together in the solar panel.

    Polycrystalline Solar Panels: Often called Multi-crystalline, solar panels made with Polycrystalline cells are a little less expensive & slightly less efficient than Monocrystalline cells because the cells are not grown in single crystals but in a large block of many crystals. This is what gives them that striking shattered glass appearance. Like Monocrystalline cells, they are also then sliced into wafers to produce the individual cells that make up the solar panel.

    Amorphous solar panels: These are not really crystals, but a thin layer of silicon deposited on a base material such as metal or glass to create the solar panel. These Amorphous solar panels are much cheaper, but their energy efficiency is also much less so more square footage is required to produce the same amount of power as the Monocrystalline or Polycrystalline type of solar panel.

    2.2.3 Specifications Of Solar Panels
    Solar panels have many specifications. The most important values are:
    Peak Power
    Open Voltage
    Short Circuit Current

    Peak Power
    The peak power is the maximum power that a solar panel can give when it is being operated in full sunlight. The higher the peak power, the higher the energy output of the panel will be.
    Open Voltage
    The open voltage is the voltage which is measured when the panel is not connected to anything but a voltmeter and pointed to the sun. The open voltage can be used to determine whether is panel is positioned in the right way. The higher the open voltage, the higher the energy output of the panel will be.

    Short Circuit Current
    The short circuit is the current which is measured when the panel is not connected to anything but a current meter to measure the short circuit current. The higher the short circuit current, the higher the energy output of the panel will be.
    2.2.4 Dc to Dc converter
    A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit or electromechanical device that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. It is a type of electric power converter. Power levels range from very low (small batteries) to very high (high-voltage power transmission). DC-to-DC converters are used in portable electronic devices such as cellular phones and laptop computers, which are supplied with power from batteries primarily. Such electronic devices often contain several sub-circuits, each with its own voltage level requirement different from that supplied by the battery or an external supply (sometimes higher or lower than the supply voltage). Additionally, the battery voltage declines as its stored energy is drained. Switched DC to DC converters offer a method to increase voltage from a partially lowered battery voltage thereby saving space instead of using multiple batteries to accomplish the same thing.
    Most DC-to-DC converter circuits also regulate the output voltage. Some exceptions include high-efficiency LED power sources, which are a kind of DC to DC converter that regulates the current through the LEDs, and simple charge pumps which double or triple the output voltage.

    Buck converter
    Boost converter

    A buck converter (step-down converter) is a DC-to-DC power converter which steps down voltage (while drawing less average current) from its input (supply) to its output (load). It is a class of switched-mode power supply (SMPS) typically containing at least two semiconductors (a diode and a transistor, although modern buck converters frequently replace the diode with a second transistor used for synchronous rectification) and at least one energy storage element, a capacitor, inductor, or the two in combination. To reduce voltage ripple, filters made of capacitors (sometimes in combination with inductors) are normally added to such a converter’s output (load-side filter) and input (supply-side filter). It is called a buck converter because the voltage across the inductor “bucks” or opposes the supply voltage. Switching converters (such as buck converters) provide much greater power efficiency as DC-to-DC converters than linear regulators, which are simpler circuits that lower voltages by dissipating power as heat, but do not step up output current. The efficiency of buck converters can be very high, often over 90%, making them useful for tasks such as converting a computer’s main supply voltage, which is usually 12 V, down to lower voltages needed by USB, DRAM and the CPU, which are usually 5, 3.3 or 1.8 V.



    The following materials were used for the construction, for this project to be completed there is a need to know the component to be used for the design these includes:
    Solar panel
    Universal serial bus connector
    Vero board
    16v 1500uf capacitor x6
    Buck converter materials:
    LM256T-ADJ x1
    IN5822 diode x1
    Capacitor 100uf x1
    Electrolytic capacitor 2200uf x1
    Inductor 150uh x1
    Potentiometer 47k x1
    Through hole resistor 1.2k ohms x1
    Circuit diagram:

    showing the circuit diagram/design of a solar powered mobile phone charger
    Design of a solar powered mobile phone charger

    Figure 2.1.2 : showing the circuit diagram of project
    The solar panel absorbs energy produced by the sun and converts it into electrical energy. It does this by absorbing sun rays into the modulus of solar panel hence produce free electrical charge carriers in the conduction and valence bonds. The electricity produced by the solar panel is DC and it is transferred to the capacitor, due to variation in intensity of sunlight to avoid lower or higher voltage which would damage our circuit or device the capacitors are added to store up the charge acting as a battery to provide a steady voltage at input. The input charge is transferred to the buck converter, the buck converter makes use of LM2576T-ADJ microprocessor and it has feedback and output will stay the same using different loads, with it we have feedback pin connected to output voltage divider, the LM256T-ADJ will change the width of the pulse depending on the output in other to keep the output constant. In this project we used a Schottky barrier rectifier diode because it has a load forward voltage; this diode will allow the current to flow when the microprocessor switch is open
    A capacitor is an electrical device that can store charge or energy. Capacitors can be connected in two ways namely:
    Serial capacitor connection.
    Parallel capacitor connection.
    When capacitors are connected in series the amount of charge output is the addition of the reciprocal of each capacitors charge and the voltage across them is not the same, there is voltage drop across each capacitor
    CT = 1/c1 + 1/c2 + 1/c3
    Total v = v1 + v2 + v3
    In a parallel connection the amount of output charge is the addition of individual charge of each capacitor. The voltage in this type of connection is the same across each capacitor.
    CT= C1 + C2 + C3
    Total v = v1 = v2 = v3
    Therefore, total charge in capacitor = 1500uf x 6 = 9000uf
    Voltage =16v
    The lm2567-adj regulators are monolithic integrated circuit that provides all the active functions of a step-down (buck) switching regulator capable of driving 3A load with excellent line and load regulation.
    The LM2576T-ADJ description
    Maximum supply voltage = 45V
    On/off pin input voltage -0.3v =< V = < +V in
    Output voltage to ground
    (Steady state). -1V
    Power dissipation internally limited
    Maximum junction temperature. 150°C
    vout = vref(1+R2/R1)
    R2 = R1(vout /vref -1)
    Where Vref = 1.23v
    R1 is between 1k to 5k ohms

    When Vout = 5v
    Vin = 18v
    R1 = 1.2kohms
    R2 which is the potentiometer is set to
    R2 = 1.2×103 (5/1.23 – 1)
    = 3.68k ohms
    I load (max) = 3.0A
    So the potentiometer will be set to 3.6k for there to be a 5v output for charging the gadget
    An inductor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. In its simplest form, an inductor consists of a wire loop or coil. The inductance is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil. we used the induction selection guide in figure below to select the inductance of the inductor

    From the figure above the inductance of inductor needed is L100
    Output capacitor
    A capacitor of capacitance ranging from 680uf to 2200uf is used at the output , the capacitor should be a standard aluminum electrolytic capacitor. The voltage rating should be 20V .
    Input capacitor
    A 100uf 25v aluminum electrolytic capacitor is located near the input and ground pin , it provides sufficient bypassing
    Catch diode
    The buck regulator requires a diode to provide a return path for the inductor current when switch is off. Thus, this diode should be located close to the lm2576t-adj using short leads. Because of their fast switching speed and low forward voltage drop, schottky diodes provide the best efficiency for the project. An in5822 diode was selected.

    The voltage of the solar panel increases when exposed to sunlight with respect of time of explosion. Similar, applies to the current and electrical power produced.

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    Project write-up for inverter

  • How To Remove Your Infinix Hot 12i Phone From Private Number

    The way to remove your phone number from hidden/private number is different from any other phone so sit down and read how to remove your infinix hot 12i phone from private number using the pictures below.

    First go to your call logs

    After select the signboard icon

    Then select the edit icon

    (it looks more like a pencil)

    Then select Sim Card Setting

    After that select Carrier Features

    Then it will take you to

    calling account

    you can either choose which

    SIM you want to remove

    from Private Number

    ( either SIM 1 or 2)

    Then select Additional Setting

    Under Additional


    select Caller ID

    (Number display in

    outgoing calls)

    It will load for 1 -3

    minutes maximum

    then it will show these

    three phase

    ( Network Default,`

    Hide Number

    and Show Number).

    Select Show Number

    By now you should have solve your private number issue. Thanks.

  • How to write a CV letter

    How to write a cv letter for yourself

    A job application is a critical matter that can make or break your chance of bagging a job. Note that recruiters have piles of applications flying in here and they spare 2-3 minutes max on each application. So your task is to lock the recruiter’s attention on your resume. So how do you write  a good compelling CV?

    Things to note when writing a CV, in a centralized format at the CV Heading your full name( surname, first name and last name) should be the first thing and in capital form. Then followed by your house address in full. Don’t just write a short address but a detailed one. An address that someone can use to get to your house with little or no stress at all, please be mindful of this because you can be disqualified in an interview for writing fake address. Then attach your phone number you normally use for official purposes e.g. your watsapp number.

    How do you write career objective on a CV

    The next phase after formal heading is career objective

    What is career objective? A career goal is the ideal state that you aim for in your professional life. Career goals can be characterized as short-term or long-term, depending on how much time you anticipate working toward achieving your goal in that particular organization.

    It solely depends on what you can do/offer or what you expect the organization to be that makes you different from other applicants. You don’t need to give a false message here, just be sincere to yourself.


    The next phase after career objective is your bio data which includes date of birth, state of origin, you local government area, gender, marital status, nationality, religion and the language you speak etc.

    Schools attended with date

    Here you can write all schools you attended from kindergarten to the graduate you are today and also the year of study for each of them. E.g. Covenant Learners Academy, Kpeyegyi-abuja     2005 – 2011. Immediately after this you have educational qualification with date. Here you can include your first leaving school certificate (FLSC), senior secondary certificate examination and so on with date.


    The skills list on your CV can be sub-divided into two; soft skills and hard skills. In simple terms, hard skills are the technical knowledge that help you get your job done whereas soft skills are the skills that help you navigate through day to day job activities in an excellent manner and some other things that are important to you or you can even do for free that can enhance your effectiveness in the job. E.g. , time management, good communication skills etc.


    The work experience section on your resume should include include information about your professional history. Describe experiences from all paid work you’ve ever done including name of company, job role and date.


    Hobbies can be seen as an activity or interest done regularly in one’s leisure time for pleasure and not as a main occupation) Example of hobbies for a CV are playing sports(football, cricket, baseball, basketball etc), reading and writing, solving puzzle games etc


    Referees can be seen as guarantors people that can stand for your good behavior. They should be a reputable person in the society, you must know their name, where they work, the post they hold in the society or place of work and phone number

    A good example

    Address: Orange plaza, Kpeyegyi, FCT Abuja
    Tel: 07025056477

    To work in an organization that offers good opportunity career development where performance and result are the bench mark and watched.

    Date of Birth: 28th May, 2000.
    State of Origin: Osun state
    Local Govt. Area: Ife-east
    Gender: Male
    Marital Status: Single
    Nationality: Nigeria
    Religion: Christian
    Language Spoken: Yoruba

    Covenant Learners Academy, Kpeyegyi, Abuja 2005-2011
    Gudmerc High School, Kurudu, Abuja. 2011- 2017
    The Polytechnic Ibadan 2021

    First school Leaving Certificate (FSLC) 2011
    Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) 2017
    National Diploma Certificate 2021

    Good communication skills
    Ability to accept responsibilities and a team player
    Excellent interpersonal relations skills


    Lenz Faith Academy, Kpeyegyi, Abuja 2017-2019
    Post: Teacher


    James 2. Imole Oluwamuyide

  • Difference between Sandwich and CDL student

    First of all both sandwich and CDL comprises of 5 years program and they’re both for part-time students.
    SANDWICH is also known as part-time. A sandwich degree, or sandwich course, is an academic degree or higher education course (also known as tertiary education) involving practical work experience in adition to academic study. Sandwich contains five session not semester and each session will take four month before completion. Starting from August till December every year for good five years, however the starting date for some institutions defers. All the courses in sandwich comprises of educational courses no professional course at all

    sandwich and CDL comprises of 5 years program

    CDL and CE also know as center for distance learning center and continue education involves all management courses, it encompasses management courses, social science courses and other related fields like political science, public admin e.t.c it program last for five years. Non of them offer professional course like engineering only ordinary course and each course is also done for five years.

    Schools for student that are already working

    Most of the courses are done online. CDL comprises of semester unlike sandwich and most likely lectures hold Friday and Saturday for the whole daily week basis ( atleast lecture hold two times a week)

  • How to Write Letter of Undertaking/Attestation in the University/College Admissions


    A formal pledge or promise to do something. For example “I give an undertaking that we shall proceed with the legislation”.
    Typically, an undertaking letter will include a statement of what is being promised, the date by which the promise will be met, and the signatures of the relevant parties. And letter of undertaking should be written as formal letter, please take note.

    How to write letter of undertaking in school
    Letter of undertaking

    Why is undertaking letter a must?

    In Nigeria, students who are newly admitted into universities, polytechnics, colleges of education and secondary schools are required to write a letter of undertaking and submit as part of the documents required for clearance.
    This will be like an assurance to them that you’ll not be non-compliance to their rules and regulations and if you do it will be a validation to them to either punish or rusticate such student from the school.

    How to write letter of undertaking for school Admission

    There are some technical information that you need to write about in your letter of undertaking, if not included you may lose accreditation due to misinformation; so therefore vital message is a must.
    Quick and relevant information that you need to provide is the year of admission and some other details of being a good student, if you start schooling there. For example, I pledge to be of good conduct and to obey all the rules and regulations of my department, faculty and the university at large

    The picture above is a good example of undertaking letter


    An attestation letter is a statement or declaration from an independent third party that lends credibility to an organization or personnel. Example is a letter written by a parent to the school affirming his/her child good behaviour. A letter of attestation is a letter that is written or signed to confirm statement, action or behavior. The writer is certifying (attesting) that they personally witnessed or know someone or something to be true.

    What is the Purpose of Attestation?

    A formal attestation is usually required by institutions, companies, organizations, etc from reputable and worthy people in the society as a way of obtaining valid legal acknowledgment or verification that an individual, a document or a process is exactly what they are projected to be. It strengthens the institution’s or organizations decision to continue transaction with the individual for whom attestation was made.

    Who can write a Letter of Attestation?

    A letter of attestation can be written by:

    1. The parents of the one being attested for.
    2. The spiritual leader (Rev. Father or pastor) of the one being attested for.
    3. A Traditional ruler or leader.
    4. An Attorney.
    5. A former employer.
    6. Any other person higher than the one being attested for and who knows them very well.

    In other words, letter of attestation may be obtained from a pastor, reverend or priest; a parent; a traditional leader; an attorney; a former employer or any other high ranking person who knows the one needing an attestation letter very well.

    One may also get a Letter of Attestation from a Mosque, or a Letter of Attestation from Local Government Area, as the case may be.

    A Good example of letter of attestation is written below



    This is to affirm that the above named student who was offered admission in the department of write your department is my son/daughter.

    Your name e.g oluwamuyide seyi is law abiding and well mannered. I strongly attest for his good behavior and undertake for all his actions throughout the duration of his study in your institution. I also undertake for his entire financial  obligations throughout his stay in your university.

    Kindly give him all the required assistance he may need.

    Yours Sincerely,

    Parent/guardian signature


    (Your parent/guardian full name eg OKEREKE DIVINE RAPH)


    Undertaking for employment purposes
    Letter of undertaking for employment purposes


    I hereby declare that I have received the Code of Conduct and Ethics. It is my sole duty and
    responsibility to read and understand the Code, which is an integral part of my Terms and Conditions
    of Employment / Service.
    I shall conduct myself with complete integrity in the execution of my duties and assignments. I
    undertake that I will abide by the Code. If for any reason(s) I do not comply with any of the
    requirements of the Code, I shall not cite ignorance or lack of understanding as my self-defence. I
    further agree that the Board / Management has the absolute right to take action due to any violation of
    the Code.
    I fully understand that the Board / Management has the absolute right to add, amend, review or delete
    any of the contents of the Code as and when necessary and that I shall also be liable to such
    additions, amendments, revisions and/or deletions.
    Full Name (please print in capital letters)
    Identify Card / Passport No.
    Department and Company
    *Please return this Letter of Undertaking to your company’s Chief Risk Officer or Chairman of HHMB



    S/NDay WeekActivity
    1Monday, December 19th, 20221Resumption of 2022/2023 first semester academic calendar for non SIWES student
    2Tuesday, January 3rd to Monday- January 16th, 20233Academy staff leave
    3 1st Tuesday, January 17th 20235, 6 and 7Lecture commence for non- SIWES student
    4Monday February 6th to Saturday 11th 20238first continuous assessment
    5Wednesday 23rd February to Monday 20th March9National or state election recess
    6Wednesday 22nd March, 20239Resumption of 2022/2023 First semester academic session for SIWES student
    7Wednesday 22nd March, 20239Registration and continuation of lectures for Non – SIWES student
    8Friday April 17th, 2023.13Second continuous assessment for Non – SIWES student
    9Monday April 17th – 21st 2023.17First continuous assessment for SIWES student
    10Tuesday 25th and Wednesday 26th April 2023 18Orientation of new student
    11Friday 28th April, 2023 18Matriculation of new student
    12Tuesday 2nd May, 202319Second continuous assessment for SIWES student
    13Friday 5th may, 202319Registration closes for all student.
    (a) Closes with sanctions. (b) Final closure; 12th may, 2023
    14Monday 15th – 19th May, 2023.20End of lectures and revision
    15Monday 22nd May to Friday, 9th June, 2023. 21First semester examination
    16Monday 11th June – Friday 23rd June, 202324Marking of scripts or commencement of student first semester break.
    17Monday 26th June – Friday 30th 202325Audits of scripts or registration of student for second semester.
    18Monday 3rd July – Friday 7th July 202326Processing of first semester 2022/2023 results/resumption
  • UNIABUJA REVISED Academic Calendar 2022/2023 SESSION


    The deadline for the payment of School Fees, Course Registration and Registration for FRESHERS Acceptance Fee has been extended to the 8th of July.

    While Returning Students remains unchanged and is still set for the 18th of July, 2023 as of the time of this message.


    Each Semester includes 15 weeks of instruction and two weeks of final examinations with minor adjustments where needed. The long vacation session includes a one-eight – one-six week- and two four week periods of instruction. Because of the prolonged 2020 Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, the University continues to make efforts to recover into a more regular academic calendar.

    Date Academic calendar
    Monday May 1, 2023 Student Course Registration online begins
    Monday May 15, 2023Classes Start, Virtual一 and Physical
    Friday May 19, 2023 STUDENT Course REGISTRATION ENDS
    Thursday – Friday July 6 – 7, 2023Mid-Semester Break
    Monday July 10, 2023Classes resume from Mid-Semester Break
    Wednesday July 19 – 26, 2023Add and Drop
    Friday August 18th, 2023Classes End
    Saturday August 19 to Saturday August 26, 2023First Semester Final Examinations
    Sunday August 27, 2023First Semester 2022/23 Break Begins
    Friday September 8, 2023Final Grades Upload and Submission to HOD by 12noon
    Tuesday September 12, 2023Faculty Boards’ Meeting to Approve Grades by 4.00pm
    Thursday September 14, 2023SBC Meeting on Grades by 10am
    Friday September 15, 2023Senate meeting to Approve Grades by 10.00am
    Saturday September 16, 2023Electronic Release of Final GRADES to students by 12noon

    The academic year consists of the First and the Second Semesters and One eight-week summer or long vacation session.

    Second Semester, 2022-2023:

    Monday – Friday September 11-22, 2023Add and Drop
    Monday September 18, 2021Classes Begin, Electronic and Physical
    Thursday – Friday October 26-27, 2023Mid-Semester Break
    Monday October 30, 2023Classes Resume from Mid-Semester Break
    Friday December 8, 2023classes end
    Saturday December 9 to Saturday December 16, 2023Second Semester Final Examinations
    Sunday December 17, 2023Second Semester 2022/23 Break Begins
    Friday December 22, 2023Final Grades Upload and Submission to HOD by 12noon
    Saturday December 23 to Tuesday December 26, 2023Christmas Break
    Wednesday December 27, 2023Faculty Boards’ Meeting to Approve Grades by 2.00pm
    Thursday December 28, 2023SBC Meeting on Grades by 10am
    Friday December 29, 2023Senate meeting to Approve Grades by 10.00am
    Friday, December 29, 2023Electronic Release of Final GRADES to students by 5pm
    Saturday February 24, 2024: 2021/22 and 2022/23 Combined Convocation Ceremon

    Academic Calendar 2023/2024 SESSION:

    The academic year consists of the First and the Second Semesters and One eight-week summer or long vacation session.
    Each Semester includes 15 weeks of instruction and ten days of final examinations. The long vacation session includes a one-eight – one-six week- and two four week periods of instruction.

    First Semester, 2023-2024

    Tuesday January 2, 2024Student Course Registration online begins
    Monday January 8, 2024Virtual and Physical classes start
    Monday January 15, 2024STUDENT Course REGISTRATION ENDS
    Friday – Friday January 26 – February 2, 2024 Add and Drop
    Thursday – Friday, March 7 – 8, 2024:Mid-Semester Break
    Monday March 11, 2024Classes Resume from Mid-Semester break
    Friday April 5, 2024Classes End
    Saturday April 6 to Saturday April 13, 2024First Semester Final Examinations
    Sunday April 14, 2024First Semester 2023/24 Break Begins
    Wednesday April 24, 2024Final Grades Upload and Submission to HOD by 12 noon
    Friday April 26, 2024Faculty Boards’ Meeting to Approve Grades by 2.00pm
    Monday April 29, 2024SBC Meeting on Grades by 10am
    Tuesday April 30, 2024Senate meeting to Approve Grades by 10.00am
    Tuesday April 30, 2024Electronic Release of Final GRADES to students by 5pm

    Second Semester, 2023-2024

    Monday May 6 – Wednesday May 15, 2024Add and drop
    Monday May 13, 2024Classes Begin, Electronic and Physical
    Thursday – Friday July 4 to 5, 2024Mid-Semester Break
    Monday July 8, 2024Classes Resume from Mid-Semester Break
    Friday August 9, 2024Classes End
    Saturday August 10 to Saturday August 17, 2024Second Semester Final Examinations
    Sunday August 18, 2024Second Semester 2023/24 Break Begins
    Friday August 26, 2024Final Grades Upload and Submission to HOD by 12noon
    Tuesday August 27, 2024Faculty Boards’ Meeting to Approve Grades by 10.00am
    Thursday August 29, 2024SBC Meeting on Grades by 10am
    Monday September 2, 2024Senate meeting to Approve Grades by 10.00am
    Monday September 2, 2024Electronic Release of Final GRADES to students by 5pm
    Monday September 15, 2024 2023/24 Convocation Ceremony
  • Does UNIABUJA Use Catchment?

    Have you been searching for the UNIABUJA Admission Catchment Area?, University Of Abuja Catchment Area? UNIABUJA ELDS? UNIABUJA Catchment Area Cut-off mark? What Is The Catchment Area For UNIABUJA?

    Are you an aspirant who wants to apply for admission to the University Of Abuja (UNIABUJA)? Does UNIABUJA Use Catchment?
    If Yes, then this article is for you and you are on the right page as we are going to make a list of UNIABUJA Catchment Area for admission.
    A lot of aspirants have been asking questions to find out the states that are among the University Of Abuja Catchment area for admission into the next session.

    What does catchment mean in admission? let’s discuss below;

    UNIABUJA Catchment
    What Is The Meaning Of UNIABUJA Catchment Area?
    Catchment areas are those states set out by the Federal Government for Federal Universities, that candidates from that state have more chances of gaining admission into the University which they have been specified to be among the catchment state.

    Students from the states specified as Catchment states are considered privileged as they have more chances to be offered admission in that school where they are among the Catchment area.

    Now that You know what the catchment area is, what are the catchment area for the University Of Abuja (UNIABUJA)? Keep reading Friend!.

    UNIABUJA Catchment Area
    The Catchment Area for the University Of Abuja (UNIABUJA) are:

    All States of the Federation

    Another set of states which also has more chances of gaining admission are called the Educationally less developed states (ELDS).

    Let’s assume you know the University Of Abuja Catchment area for admission, let’s now look at the various ELDS state in UNIABUJA.

    How do University of Abuja admits student
    University of Abuja admission in progress

    UNIABUJA ELDS For Admission
    The ELDS Area for the University Of Abuja (UNIABUJA) are:


    1. Adamawa
    2. Bauchi
    3. Bayelsa
    4. Benue
    5. Borno
    6. Cross River
    7. Ebonyi
    8. Gombe
    9. Jigawa
    10. Kaduna
    11. Kano
    12. Kebbi
    13. Kogi
    14. Katsina
    15. Kwara
    16. Nasarawa
    17. Niger
    18. Plateau
    19. Rivers
    20. Sokoto
    21. Taraba
    22. Yobe
    23. Zamfara

    It must however be noted that this does not mean the UNIABUJA does not admit students outside the catchment area rather the catchment areas are given special considerations.

    JAMB admission is defined in areas of merit, catchment areas, and educationally less developed states (ELDS).

    Merit 45%, 35% is for catchment area and 20% to those from educationally less developed states.

    The fact is that if a candidate from another state outside the catchment area beats the MERIT cut-off mark of the University of Abuja for the chosen course, he or she will be admitted regardless of the Catchment Policy.

    And if you are from any of the catchment States and you failed to meet the catchment cut-off you will not be admitted into the University Of Abuja.

  • When are they giving admission to 2022 students| UNI ABUJA SCHOOL UPDATE


    As promised, I’ll be telling you what you have to know about the aftermath of the Post Utme Registration.
    Take your time to read this to the end, make sure you share this to anyone you think might be in need of this write up as well.
    The registration for university of Abuja Post UTME Screening has ended on the 7th of February, for all those that have registered, I want to wish all that have registered good luck ahead, as far as you’ve done the needful. A quick notice to those that still want to edit or upload one or two documents on the school portal, you can still make all the corrections you want to make, even after the deadline has elapsed, that’s how generous the university of Abuja is.
    If you haven’t upload any of your documents, you can still upload it now, and those of you that haven’t upload your O’level results, please do so immediately you have your O’level results ready with you.
    Another advice for you; as you are making corrections or new uploads to your registration, it’s highly expected of you to be more cautious as not to do any mistake in it that may impede, hinder, refrain or deprive you of your admission, as far as you don’t have anything to do or correct in your registration, just leave it, don’t bother touching it.


    The screening result will follow, but it won’t be immediately after this, whenever it’s time, we will surely let you know, just keep following our updates here, and, base on my estimation, the screening result will be out by the end of February or early March and hopefully admission will start reeling out in the month of March as well but it may be during the end of March, so you guys can resume as our new intakes in the month of May, as the new session commences in the first week of May. As soon as things go as planned.

    My last advice before concluding my write-up

    PLEASE, beware of scammers, this is their prime time they do make use of the opportunity to scam admission seekers like you, don’t fall prey, don’t be too desperate and don’t ever think of sorting out admissions with unknown people, paying exorbitant fees, you’ll just be scammed and no one will come to your aid or rescue.
    Whosoever ask you to pay money for anything or to sort out things online here, please share on the comments box below!

    If you are confused about anything or you want to ask questions, the comments box is always available for you, just construct your sentence well and be considerate with your questions.



    JULY, 2021.


    This is to certify that the project work, “CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC CHANGE OVER SWITCH” was done by;

    OKE AYOMIDE DAVID 2018232040046
    OKUNADE ADEKUNLE 2018232040047
    OLADEJO MAYOWA AYOMIDE 2018232040048
    Of the department of Electrical Engineering, The Polytechnic, Ibadan.

    _____ _____

    _____ _____


    This project work is dedicated to Almighty God for his loving kindness and fulfillment for his grace over us during the study in The Polytechnic, Ibadan. Also to our beloved parents for their encouragement, understanding, love and support during the course of our study.


    First we express our heartiest thanks and gratefulness to almighty God for his divine blessing makes us possible to complete this project successfully. We feel grateful to and wish our profound indebtedness to our Supervisor ENGR E. T OPALEYE. The deep knowledge & keen interest of our supervisor has worked as an influencer to carry out project. His endless patience, guidance, continual encouragement, constant and energetic supervision, constructive criticism and valuable advice have made it possible to complete this project. We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to him for motivation and valuable suggestions time to time. I am also thankful to other faculty member and the staff of the Electrical department of our institution. We would like to thank our friends & course-mate, who took part in this project and helped us a lot while completing the circuit design work. Lastly, we express our heartily regards to our parents whose blessings have always been with us.


    This project work deals on the design and construction of an automatic changeover that will change or transfer power4 control from the MAINS to a generator set and can switch on the generator set automatically whenever there is power outage. The system integrates phase selector in the MAINS and changeover to the generator and vice-versa. It is designed in several blocks all combined to from one functional unit. A +5V regulate DC power supply unit forms the first block. The output of the BCD- Decimal decoder is used to select the phase in priority through a transistor driver stage and electromagnetic relay that activates contactors. The least prioritized phase is the generator set which contains a circuitry that automatically starts and stops the generator set. The system is realized with TTL chips market. LEDS and AC panel lamps are used to indicate the status of the system while a manual switch is used to demonstrate the mode of operation of the system.


    Fig. 2.1. Schematic diagram of 15V DDC power supply 8
    Fig. 2.2. A Rackmount, adjustable regulated DC power supply 8
    Fig. 2.3. Electronic bench power supply unit 9
    Fig. 2.4. Alternating current from wall outlet 13
    Fig. 2.5. Full wave rectified 13
    Fig. 2.6 Full wave rectified +capacitor 14
    Fig. 3.1. Pin configuration of 7806 16
    Fig. 3.2. Increasing output voltage of regulator 17
    Fig. 3.3. Using the capacitor filter and output voltage wave forms are plotted 17
    Fig. 3.4. Block diagram of 0-30V variable DC power supply 18
    Fig. 3.5. A step-down transformer 18
    Fig. 3.6. AC to DC conversion full wave rectification 19
    Fig. 3.7. Circuit diagram of smoothening Capacitor 20
    Fig. 3.8. Circuit diagram of transient current compensator 21
    Fig. 3.9. Circuit diagram of voltage regulator for adjustable 0-30V DC power supply 21
    Fig. 3.10. Diagram of variable DC power supply 24
    Fig. 4.1. Circuit diagram of variable power supply 26
    Fig. 4.2. Diagram of transformer 28
    Fig. 4.3. Circuit diagram of a bridge rectifier 29
    Fig. 4.4. Diagram of an Electrolytic capacitor 30
    Fig. 4.5. Diagram of LM317T 31
    Fig. 4.6. Diagram of resistor 33
    Fig. 5.1. Soldering wire 36
    Fig. 5.2. Flux 36
    Fig. 5.3. Wire cutter 36
    Fig. 5.4. Multimeter 36
    Fig. 5.5. Construction of the 0-30V variable DC power supply with digital display 38
    Fig. 5.6. End result of the 0-30V variable DC power supply with digital display 38


    2.1. Categorization of the types of power supplies 14
    5.1 Bill of Engineering, Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 35


    Title Page i
    Certification ii
    Dedication iii
    Acknowledgement iv
    Abstract v
    List of Figure vi
    List of table vii
    Table of Contents viii

    Chapter One
    1.0. Introduction 1
    1.1. Background of the Project 2
    1.2. Statement of the Problem 2
    1.3. Aims of the Project 3
    1.4. Contribution to Knowledge 3
    1.5. Scope of the Project 3
    1.6. Methodology 3
    1.7. Definition of Term 4
    2.0 Literature Review 6
    2.1. A brief Outline of the Chapter 6
    2.2. Historical Background of the Project 6
    2.3. Theories and Concept of Research 7
    3.0 Research Methodology 16
    3.1. A Brief Outline of the Chapter 16
    3.2. Research Design 16
    3.3. Block by Block Design of a variable 0-30V DC Power Supply 18
    4.0. Principles of operation of the project 25
    4.1 Brief introduction of the chapter 25
    4.2. Principle of operation 26
    4.3. Explanation of various unit 27
    5.0. Construction of the designed project 34
    5.1. Brief introduction of the chapter 34
    5.2. Choice of materials 34
    5.3. Bill of Engineering, Measurement and Estimation (BEME) 35
    5.4. Construction of the project 36
    5.5. Test(s) results of the test 38
    6.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 39
    6.1. Summary of the project chapter by chapter 39
    6.2. Problems encountered 40
    6.3. Conclusion 40
    6.4. Recommendation 41



    Construction of Automatic Changeover Switch
    Construction of Automatic Changeover Switch

    The need for constant and stable power supply in a country, state or city cannot be overemphasized. In most developing nations, industries, firms and organizations contest for power supply that is unreliable and insecure, thus marring the effect of productivity and development. In these nations, the quest for secure and reliable power supply remains a dream yet to be achieved. This is as a result of increase in population, industrialization, urbanization (Aguinaga, 2008; Fuller, 2007; Kolo, 2007), and lack of proper planning by the government and utility providers. Most manufacturing industries, firms and institutions such as hospitals and healthcare facilities, financial institutions, data centers and airports to mention, but a few require constant power supply throughout the year. Volatility in power generally delays development in public and private section of any economy (Kolo, 2007; Anon, 2010; Chukwubuikem, 2012). For instance, power failure could lead to prohibitive consequences ranging from loss of huge amounts of money to life casualties (Aguinaga, 2008). This instability in power supply has led to the development of switching systems between national grid power system and standby generators used as backup. In the past decade, various equipment and configurations have been put in place in order to manage this problem (Aguinaga, 2008).
    An automatic changeover switching system makes use of contactors, active and passive components and transducers to realize changeover in a shorter time while excluding human interference and its attendant (Chukwubuikem, 2012). The research project is designed for power supply applications. It involves automatic change over between the mains power supply and a standby generating set. The project implements an automatic switching or starting of the power generator, whenever the main power fails. The circuit of the project consists of logical control units, display units, alarm units and relay switches.
    The design of the project takes into consideration practical or real life situations and a lot of precautions were put in place to make its performance acceptable, even though it is a prototype design. The basic operation of the project is to switch ON an auxiliary power supply (a generator). This operation connects the power supply from the generator to the load after a predetermined time interval. This is intended to normalize the current from the generator. Switching is possible through the use of the relays. The system was designed to automatically change power supply back to the main supply moments, after the A.C. mains are restored and to switch OFF the generator.

    Power failure or outage in a country, state or city is highly detrimental to development in public and private industries. The insecurity associated with constant or frequent power failure or outage brings about limitation to power consistent investments, thus hampering the development of industries and multinational ventures. Processes like carrying out surgical operations in hospitals, laboratories which require constant power supply for research, money transactions between banks and more require constant use of uninterrupted power. In other to solve this problem, an automatic changeover switch was invented. This research covers the design and construction of a single phase digital automatic power changeover. It has the capacity to automatically switch power from national grid to generator and vice versa, once there is power failure in any of the two power supplies and at the same time has the capacity of shutting down a generator set once the mains grid is been restored.

    This project is aimed at constructing a changeover switch which switches ON power from Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC) to a generator when power fails and from generator to IBEDC when power comes back and then shut down the generator automatically.
    Therefore, objectives of this study are:
    To design a device that will change from public power supply to generator when there is power failure or power outage.
    To construct a device that will change from generator to public power supply.
    To construct a reliable electrical power device which is highly efficient.
    To construct automatic changeover switch.
    Studying of various component used in circuit.

    In every home, office or industries, automatic power changeover plays a vital role, that is, It provides a means of switching from utility AC mains to generator in the case of power failure; This project has been improved on the existing types of electromechanical device that has being in use over the years.

    This work covers only a one phase automatic changeover which can only be used for providing a means of switching from one phase of AC mains to generator set in the case of failure in public utility.

    To achieve the aim and objectives of this work, the following are the steps involved:
    Study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency.
    Draw a block diagram.
    Test for continuity of components and devices.
    Design and calculation for the changeover was carried out
    Studying of various component used in circuit.
    Construct a digital changeover circuit.
    Finally, the whole device was cased and final test was carried out.

    • RELAY: This is an electromagnetic switch. Switching on/off of relays is based on the flow of current through its coil. Relay is used for switching on/off various high voltage circuits. Changeover switch.
    • TRANSFORMER: This a device used for stepping up and down of voltages. Transformer is one of the most important components of the automatic changeover switch. The job of the transformer is to step down 220v to15v as the output of the automatic changeover switch.
    • RECTIFIERS: The rectifier circuit consists of a rectifies in series with the AC input to rectifies and the load requiring the DC output i.e. it convert AC to DC.
    • DIODE: These are two terminal devices which exhibit low resistance to current flow in one direction and hinder resistance to resistance to current in the other direction. Diode is electronic components.
    • CAPACITORS: These are passive components that provide a means of storing electrical energy in form of an electric field.
    • REGULATOR: These are device that are used control the rate of current or voltage that from in a process.
    • LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED): This is a small semiconductor devices which emit light when small forward current is applied to them.
    • RESISTORS: These are defines as devices that alter or resist the flow of current in an electric circuit.
    • POWER OUTAGE/ POWER FAILURE: is the loss of the electrical power network supply to an end user.
    • AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER: is device that automatically transfers power from generator supply to PHCN supply when available and stops the generator without human intervention.



    This chapter presented the existing literature on the study variables of automatic changeover switch. This is secondary data and major sources were textbooks, and previous research reports, publications, journals and Internet etc. It provides a description, summary and evaluation of each source.

    2.2.1 Uninterrupted Continuous Power Supply
    Uninterrupted continuous power supply is essential to the industrial sector, university operations, and residential sector. These standby power supply systems are used to supply power to several types of loads such as:
    Essential Loads particularly in industrial processes where they require high restarting times or high shut down times. So the automatic transfer from the main supplies to the standby generator must be available.
    Critical Loads such as elevators, or lighting in the buildings where the automatic changeover is very important especially in hospitals, malls, and public places.
    Sensitive Loads such as computers, equipment and appliances in hospitals, microprocessor, controlled industrial machines, and the monitoring system where it is costly to shut them down and may be required to use of Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) system until the automatic changeover happens. If a power failure occurs in any hospital or factory, it is essential to switch between the main supplies and the standby generator and make the transition as smooth and safe as possible (Hatem A., 2014).
    A changeover system is an active and pivotal system. When there is a main electrical failure, the changeover system would switch to standby alternative power supply (generator), and return back to the main supply when it is restored. Meanwhile an automatic changeover system allows a smooth and automatic transfer of electrical current between multiple sources of power to loads. The automatic changeover system would ensure that all power sources synchronized before connecting the loads with any source to prevent any feedback current from any source to the load when any one of them takes over.
    The changeover would sense the interruption if the main supply remains as unavailable the changeover is sensitive to the fluctuations as voltage drops below a particular level within a specified time in the main power supply line. In this case the automatic changeover would switch on the generator and starts feeding the load through a relay that switches the battery voltage to the ignition of the generator. In a few seconds the generator starts producing full power. During this time, the relays would disconnect the load from the other power supplies simultaneously and connect it to the generator. The changeover senses the main power supply continuously. If it is restored, the changeover would return back the connection between the load and the main supply because of its priority. Then, the generator would shut down after a few seconds. The automatic changeover switch that is being designed would be a complete system with various subsystems and components arranged and linked to function primarily as a means of manipulating the supply of electrical power to any desired load (Hatem A., 2014).
    The switching that is obtainable from the ordinary changeover system is usually manual, that is, the user would have to move a lever to change from one source to another. This is usually associated with time wasting as well as some health hazards like electric shock. In order to eliminate this human intervention as well as introduce some speed and precision, there is a need for an automatic changeover switch. The switching system selects the available power source without the intervention of the user; hence, ensuring the availability of supply at all times provided that at least one power source is available. The change from one source to another could only be achieved by device or a system that determines when the change should actually take place and which source is to be given preference to supply the load. Preference would be given to the power sources such that only one source supplies the load at a time and when the (first utilities) source fails, the link immediately connects the (second utilities) source to the load.
    When the (second utilities) source fails, the link immediately connects the generator to the load. The paper deals with single-phase power source instead of three-phase source. The three-phase was left for future work. Under/over voltage relays with timers to delay the start-up operation until the power supply is stable were used. A delay associated with the automatic changeover system could reach 5Sec. An uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) could be used to cover this period. The design problem could be subdivided into basically two parts: the power part and the control power. The power part would supply and handle all the power requirements of the automatic changeover switch. The two input power sources would be handled by this subunit as well as the final output to be supplied to the load. It would also provide the necessary control voltage needed by the control section of the unit as a whole. The control part is actually the brain of the automatic changeover switch. It is the part of the unit that would perform the necessary switching based on the prewired configuration of the relaying and triggering system to be developed. This would ensure that only one source actually supplies the load at all times and the required preference for the power sources would be achieved by this subunit.
    Fig. 2.1 shows the block diagram of a single phase automatic changeover switch.

    Fig. 2.1: The block diagram of the system

    The block diagram of an automatic change over switch
    Change over switch block diagram

    2.3.1 Review of Existing Work

    A research by Atser A. et al., (2014), a “3-Phase Automatic Power Change Over switch” has been designed and implemented using three voltage Comparators (LM741 AH1883), 3-input-AND gate (4073), two BC 108 transistors and 12V, 30mA relay as well as some biasing resistors. The voltage Comparators (LM741 AH1883) were biased to sense the unregulated voltage – one for each of the three phases (Rø, Yø, Bø) and then couple the analogue outputs to the 3-input-AND gate (4073). The AND gate produces an output of “0” (OFF) when all the three phase input voltages are all within the normal (preset) range, else it produces an output of “1” (ON) implying a voltage drop or phase failure in at least one of the compared phases. The output of the gate when coupled to the base of switching transistors (BC 108) determines their states (OFF or ON). Since the transistors are configured in a Darlington pair arrangement, the second is ON only when the first is OFF. This then triggers the public power supply ON due to normal phase voltage. On the contrary, when the first transistor is ON, the 12V battery produces a potential which triggers ON the alternative power source (Generator) via the 12V, 30mA relays hence breaking contact from the public power supply to the Generator side. The switch is tested to have function optimally within ±5% nominal voltage of 220 or 415V supply at the point of changing over to an alternative power source. Hence this device can be of Industrial or domestic use where 3-phase power supply is available with a stand-by power source.
    Power supply instability in developing countries creates a need for automation of electrical power generation or alternative sources of power to back up the utility supply. This automation becomes necessary as the rate of power outage becomes predominantly high. Most industries and commercial processes are partly dependent on generators and public power suppOkayly which is epileptic especially in tropical African countries where Nigeria forms a part. Therefore, if the processes of power change-over between these two power-supplying sources are manual, human error during change-over connections may occur; leading to machine damage, electric shock/electrocution as well as increased down time consequently introducing massive losses (Mazur and Rocks, 2001).
    To ensure the continuity of power supply, many commercial/industrial facilities depend on both utility service and on-site generation (generator set). And because of the growing complexity of electrical systems it becomes imperative to give attention to power supply reliability and stability. Over the years many approaches have been implored in configuring a changeover system. Some of them are discussed below.

    2.3.2 Manual Changeover Switch Box
    Manual changeover switch box separates the source between a generator and public supply. Whenever there is power failure, changeover is done manually by human and the same happens when the public power is restored and this is usually accompanied with loud noise and electrical sparks.
    2.3.3 Limitations of Manual Changeover Switch Box
    Below are some of the limitations of manual changeover switch box.

    1. Time wasting whenever there is power failure
    2. It is strenuous to operate
    3. It is causes device, process or product damage
    4. It could cause fire outbreak
    5. It makes a lot of noise.
    6. Maintenance is more frequent as the changeover action causes wears and tears.

    Figure 2.2 is a diagram of manual changeover switch box

    The block diagram of a manual change over switch
    The block diagram of a manual change over switch

    Fig.2.2: Manual changeover switch box
    2.3.4 Automatic Changeover System with Electromechanical Relays (EMRs)

    A relay is an electromagnetic device that is activated by varying its input in order to get a desired output. Recently, electromechanical relays (EMRs) have been used with other component to implement automatic changeover. Such components could be logic gates, transistors, opto-coupler, microcontroller etc. Most of these components make use of 5v since they are Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) based. Such control system must be properly isolated from the relay as shown in figure 2.3 to avoid the flow back of ac signal into the control electronics.

    Fig. 2.3: Block diagram of automatic changeover system with electromechanical relay.

    Figure 2.4: Diagram of electromechanical relays.
    This type of changeover system is better than the manual changeover with switch box because it is automatic and faster, but has its limitations which are listed below:
    • Noise associated with switching of relays.
    • Wear and tear.
    • Arching which could cause fire outbreak.
    • High Component count making the system more prone to failures.
    2.3.5 Changeover with Automatic Transfer Switch
    This type of changeover system has an automatic transfer switch which monitors the alternating current (AC) voltage coming from the utility company line for power failure conditions. Upon detection of power failure for predetermined period of time, the standby generator is activated (started), after which the load is transferred from utility to the standby generator. Then, on return of the utility feed, the load is switched back after some time and the generator is stopped. The limitations of this approach are more or less the same thing with automatic changeover system with electromechanical relays.

    2.3.6 Description of the New System
    In view of the limitations of the above previous works, this paper proposes and implements a changeover system that drastically reduced the shortcomings. The noise, arching, wear and tear associated with EMRs are eliminated totally by the introduction of solid state relay. Digital components were also used to make the work more reliable unlike the previously existing ones that make use of circuit breakers. Also an AT89C52 microcontroller was also incorporated to help improve the speed of automation. The system is controlled by a software program embedded in the microcontroller. This work is handy and portable compared to the bulky works done previously. It also have some important features like liquid crystal
    display (LCD) which makes the system user friendly, an alarm system for indicating generator failure, automatic phase selector for selecting most appropriate phase, over-voltage and under-voltage level monitoring. Economically, this project is of low cost due to the use of ICs in place of discrete components.
    2.3.7 Description of Solid State Relays
    With emergence of semiconductor technology the production of solid state relays were made possible which in many applications out perform their predecessors. A typical solid state relay consists of a light emitting diode (LED) optically coupled to a photovoltaic device such as a Field Effect Transistor (FET). Light from the LED creates a voltage across the photovoltaic array and activates the output FET. FET is the preferred switching element in a solid state relay because it presents comparatively less electric resistant when it is in a conductive state than a triac in the same state and therefore generates less heat. As a result of this, FET requires smaller heat dissipating fins and could reduce the overall size of the solid state relay. The internal circuitry of a typical solid state relay is shown figure 2.5 while figure 2.6 is a solid state relay from FOTEK:

    The internal circuitry of a typical solid state relay
    The internal circuit of a typical solid state relay

    Fig. 2.5: The internal circuitry of a typical solid state relay

    Fig. 2.6: Solid state relay from FOTEK

    2.3.8 Advantages of solid state relay over electromechanical relay
    Solid state relay has the following properties which gave it an edge over the EMR:
    It has no moving coil part.
    It has long operating life.
    Bounce-free operation.
    It has immunity to electromagnetic interference.
    It has high switching speed
    It could be controlled by a low signal (3v).
    Multi function integration
    No arching or sparking.
    No acoustical noise.
    High reliability.
    Resistance to shock and vibration.
    Wide input voltage range.
    High input-output isolation.
    Because of the low signal control feature, solid state relays could be driven directly by the microcontroller the use of interface drivers. This could save space, time and money, reduce component count as well as improve product life, performance and reliability.

    The stand-by generator set is commonly used to supply emergency power to most of the power consumers where the mains supply is unstable. For best performance of the system, we must put into consideration the type of generator, engine type, its cooling system and fuel, the load capacity and the operating environment. Whatever cooling system is used to cool the generator, it is recommended that the heated air be channeled outside through an exhaust pipe while provision should be made to bring in fresh air so that the generating room, where the generator is installed, can be kept from becoming excessively hot, as this might cause damage to the engine of the generating set (Ezema, et al., 2012).
    Furthermore, the lubrication of the set is much important; the recommended lubricant should be used in order to maintain smooth and prolonged life span of the set by reducing wear and tear of the engine and other parts due to friction (Ezema, et al., 2012). Finally, it is important to determine the correct rating of the mechanical engine to drive a given generator so that it has the minimum capacity necessary to supply the selected load.

    The automatic change-over switch can be used in any place where alternative power is needed to complement the main power supply. In this project, a generating set is used as an alternative power supply. Thus, it is very important to note the necessary peripherals to be used with the automatic change-over switch.
    (a) The generator must have electrical ‘start and stop’ facility.
    (b) The generator’s battery has to be in good condition always.
    (c) The inter-connecting cables must be in good order (Ezema, et al., 2012).



    The methodology of this research involves construction of an Automatic Changeover Switch. The incorporation of the Automatic Changeover Switch involves the use of automatic switching between the phases of the mains supply and automatic switching between the generator/backup power supply. The main objective of this research is to compare the stress levels experienced during automatic switching with the aid of the Automatic Changeover Switch and the stress levels experienced when the switching is done manually, analyzing the relationship between them and drawing conclusions based on the analysis. Also the time delay during switching with the use of the Automatic Changeover Switch and with the switching done manually are also compared and analyzed and conclusions are drawn from the analysis.

    3.2.1 Design Consideration of a Change-over Switch
    In designing and construction of this change-over switch, a generator with the capacity of 12KVA was used and its rating determines the ratings of the components and circuit elements to be used. It does not function with a faulty generating set and the generator must have a manual starter and engine stopper which is a sine quo non to the function of the automatic change-over. This automatic change-over switch is designed and constructed with the aim of achieving the following automatic actions.
    To automatically switch on the generator and switch over the load to the generator whenever there is mains power failure.
    To automatically switch over to mains supply once restored and simultaneously switch off the generator.
    However, a good switch should be the one whose contact is made in such away as to limit the arc formation by having no contact-bounce and by having contacts made of good conductive, corrosion resistance and wears resistance materials. Change-over switch must have adequate insulation and must be so contracted and located as not to constitute a potential hazard. A good change-over switch should also have tight contact points so as to limit or eliminate the possibility of partial contact at the contact point. The partial contact may lead to fire outbreak or possible damage to the contactor itself.
    The following are the advantages that are associated to the change-over switch.

     Design Consideration of a Change-over Switch
    Design Consideration of a Change-over Switch
    • It minimizes damages to lives and equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human error.
    • It reduces change- over time to a minimum, due to its fast response to power restoration.
    • It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.
    • Moreover, the unit is portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.

    Fig. 3.1: Phase Automatic Change Over with Generator Control

    Phase Automatic Change Over with Generator Control
    Phase Automatic Change Over with Generator Control

    3.3.1 Materials

    Three voltage Comparators (LM741 AH1883), 3-input-AND gate (4073), two BC 108 transistors, two 12V; 30mA relays, biasing resistors, 240/12V; 500mA transformer, bridge rectifier (1N4002), two voltage regulators (LM7812 and LM7805), variac, Multimeter plus some other components.
    3.3.2 Components
    The components involved in the construction of the ATS are made up mainly of contactors and relays. This is so because they are very effective when used for electrical controls. They operate on the principle of electromagnetism and can carry out automatic switching very effectively. They are very rugged and durable and their operation is similar but the difference between them is that contactors can switch higher currents. Other components include miniature circuit breakers and indicator lights. On table 3.1 is a list of components to be used and their ratings.
    Table 3.1 List of components and rating

    Magnetic contactor
    220/240, 20A

    Solid state relay

    Relay (ac)

    Miniature circuit breaker
    220/240V, 20A

    Indicator light

    Digital voltmeter

    Emergency switch
    NC/NO contact

    3.4.1 Relay
    A relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current. The current flowing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit. Relays are like remote control switches and are used in many applications because of their relative simplicity, long life, and proven high reliability. Relays are used in a wide variety of applications throughout industry, such as in telephone exchanges, automatic changeover switch, digital computers and automation systems. Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power systems against trouble and power blackouts as well as to regulate and control the generation and distribution of power. In the home, relays are used in refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers, and heating and air-conditioning controls. Although relays are generally associated with electrical circuitry, there are many other types, such as pneumatic and hydraulic. Input may be electrical and output directly mechanical, or vice versa.
    3.4.2 Basic Operation of Relay
    All relays contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by AC or DC current. When the applied current or voltage exceeds a threshold value, the coil activates the armature, which operates either to close the open contacts or to open the closed contacts. When a power is supplied to the coil, it generates a magnetic force that actuates the switch mechanism. The magnetic force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to another. The first circuit is called the control circuit; the second is called the load circuit.
    There are three basic functions of a relay:
    On/Off Control,
    Limit Control and
    Logic Operation.
    On/Off Control: Example: Air conditioning control, used to limit and control a “high power”
    load, such as a compressor
    Limit Control: Example: Motor Speed Control, used to disconnect a motor if it runs slower or faster than the desired speed
    Logic Operation: Example: Test Equipment, used to connect the instrument to a number of testing points on the device under test.

    3.4.3 Types of Relays
    There are two basic classifications of relays: Electromechanical and Solid State. Electromechanical relays have moving parts, whereas solid state relays have no moving parts. Advantages of Electromechanical relays include lower cost, no heat sink is required, multiple poles are available, and they could switch AC or DC with equal ease.
    i. Electromechanical Relays
    General Purpose Relay: The general-purpose relay is rated by the amount of current its switch contacts could handle. Most versions of the general-purpose relay have one to eight poles and could be single or double throw. These are found in computers, copy machines, and other consumer electronic equipment and appliances.
    Power Relay: The power relay is capable of handling larger power loads – 10-50 amperes or more. They are usually single-pole or double-pole units.
    ii. Solid State Relays
    These active semiconductor devices use light instead of magnetism to actuate a switch. The light comes from an LED, or light emitting diode. When control power is applied to the device’s output, the light General Purpose Relay is turned on and shines across an open space. On the load side of this space, a part of the device senses the presence of the light, and triggers a solid state switch that either opens or closes the circuit under control. Often, solid state relays are used where the circuit under control must be protected from the introduction of electrical noises. Advantages of Solid State Relays include low EMI/RFI, long life, no moving parts, no contact bounce, and fast response. The drawback to using a solid state relay is that it could only accomplish single pole switching (Hatem 2014). Figure 3.2 is a relay switch at rest and when is energize.

    Fig. 3.2: Diagram of a Relay switch

    3.3.5 Operating Principle of Contactors
    Unlike general-purpose relays, contactors are designed to be directly connected to high-current load devices. Relays tend to be of lower capacity and are usually designed for both normally closed and normally open applications. Devices switching more than 15 amperes or in circuits rated more than a few kilowatts are usually called contactors. Apart from optional auxiliary low current contacts, contactors are almost exclusively fitted with normally open (“form A”) contacts. Unlike relays, contactors are designed with features to control and suppress the arc produced when interrupting heavy motor currents. When current passes through the electromagnet, a magnetic field is produced, which attracts the moving core of the contactor. The electromagnet coil draws more current initially, until its inductance increases when the metal core enters the coil. The moving contact is propelled by the moving core; the force developed by the electromagnet holds the moving and fixed contacts together. When the contactor coil is de-energized, gravity or a spring returns the electromagnet core to its initial position and opens the contacts.
    For contactors energized with alternating current, a small part of the core is surrounded with a shading coil, which slightly delays the magnetic flux in the core. The effect is to average out the alternating pull of the magnetic field and so prevent the core from buzzing at twice line frequency. Because arcing and consequent damage occurs just as the contacts are opening or closing, contactors are designed to open and close very rapidly; there is often an internal tipping point mechanism to ensure rapid action. Rapid closing could, however, lead to increase contact bounce which causes additional unwanted open-close cycles. One solution is to have bifurcated contacts to minimize contact bounce; two contacts designed to close simultaneously, but bounce at different times so the circuit would not be briefly disconnected and cause an arc.
    A slight variant has multiple contacts designed to engage in rapid succession. The first to make contact and last to break would experience the greatest contact wear and would form a high-resistance connection that would cause excessive heating inside the contactor. However, in doing so, it would protect the primary contact from arcing, so a low contact resistance would be established a millisecond later. Another technique for improving the life of contactors is contact wipe; the contacts move past each other after initial contact on order to wipe off any contamination. (Lanre O.R. 2014). Figure 3.3 is a diagram of contactor switch

    Fig. 3.3: Diagram of a Contactor switch

    Diagram of a Contactor switch
    Diagram of a Contactor switch

    The digital multimeter, DMM, is one of the most common items of test equipment used in the electronics industry today. While there are many other items of test equipment that are available, the multimeter is able to provide excellent readings of the basic measurements of amps, volts and ohms. In addition to this the fact that these digital multimeters use digital and logic technology, means that the use of integrated circuits rather than analogue techniques, enables many new test features to be embedded in the design. As a result, most of today’s digital multimeters incorporate many additional measurements that could be made.

    While the facilities that a digital multimeter could offer are much greater than their analogue predecessors, the cost of DMMs is relatively low. DMMs are able to offer as standard the basic measurements that would typically include:
    Current (DC)
    Current (AC)
    Voltage (DC)
    Voltage (AC)
    However, using integrated circuit technology, most DMMs are able to offer additional test capabilities. These may include some of the following:
    Transistor test – hfe, etc
    Continuity (buzzer)
    While some of these additional test features may not be as accurate as those supplied by dedicated test instruments, they are nevertheless very useful, especially where approximate readings only are needed.
    In addition to an increase in the number of basic measurements that could be made, refinements of some of the basic measurements are also available on some models. True RMS multimeters are available. In many instances, AC waveforms use forms of average measurements that are then converted to RMS measurements using a form factor. This method of measurement is very dependent upon the shape of the waveform and as a result a true RMS digital multimeter may be required. In addition to the availability of a true RMS meters, similar refinements of the other basic measurements are also available in some instances.
    In addition to the additional measurement capabilities, DMMs also offer flexibility in the way measurements are made. Again this is achieved because of the additional capabilities provided by the digital electronics circuitry contained within the digital multimeter. Many instruments would offer two additional capabilities:
    Auto-range:   This facility enables the correct range of the digital multimeter to be selected so that the most significant digits are shown, i.e. a four-digit DMM would automatically select an appropriate range to display 1.234 mV instead of 0.012 V. Additionally it also prevent overloading, by ensuring that a volts range is selected instead of a millivolts range. Digital multimeters that incorporate an auto-range facility usually include a facility to ‘freeze’ the meter to a particular range. This prevents a measurement that might be on the border between two ranges causing the meter to frequently change its range which could be very distracting.
    Auto-polarity:   This is a very convenient facility that comes into action for direct current and voltage readings. It shows if the voltage of current being measured is positive (i.e. it is in the same sense as the meter connections) or negative (i.e. opposite polarity to meter connections). Analogue meters did not have this facility and the meter would deflect backwards and the meter leads would have to be reversed to correctly take the reading. Figure 3.3 is a diagram of digital multimeter and table 3.2 is the rough estimate of cost implication of the project.

    Fig. 3.4: Diagram of Digital multimeter

    Diagram of Digital multimeter
    Diagram of Digital multimeter

    Table 3.2: Rough Estimate of the Cost Implication of the Project
    Total Cost(N)

    Magnetic Contactor, 220/240V, 20A

    Relay, 220/240V

    Digital voltmeter,220/240

    Miniature circuit breaker, 220/240V, 16A

    Indicator Light, 220/240V

    Package box

    Mounting rail

    Single core cable, 2.5mm2 (red)

    Single core cable, 2.5mm2 (black

    Single core flexible cable, 0.75mm2

    Packet screw

    Packet Nylon cable ties

    OVERALL TOTAL……………………………………….. N16,950


    4.1 Brief Introduction of the Chapter
    This chapter reveals the research design, and the different stages of the project, the concept as well as the techniques adopted in the project and the working principle of the project.

    4.2 Principle of Operation
    4.2.1 Working Operation of A 10 KVA Change Over Switch

    The project is designed such that everything takes place automatically and the appliances are never switched OFF, just reverted from inverter AC to Mains AC and vice versa during mains power failures and restorations.
    A scenario in which the change over switches from a generator source to AC mains whenever is available, but not design to put on the generator when there is AC mains power out. All these are done automatically.

    Fig. 4.1: Circuit diagram of construction of Automatic Changeover Switch
    The entire unit requires three relays; the relays are serving as switches, the first relay is used to switch between the outputs of both the main and generator, that is, LIVE and neutral from their respective direct connections before entering the house.
    The second relay is used such that when there is the relay NORMALLY CLOSED (NC) remains closed and the house is supplied with the available voltage source.
    When the generator is ON as a result of outage, the NORMALLY OPEN (NO) overrides on the NC of the initial condition, while the NC remains closed, the house is supplied with the generator voltage.
    The third relay is a small 12V relay that is used to permanently put off the generator when there is power supply. The relay works by first an LED which comes on to show that there is power supply available and shut down the generator.
    The microcontroller used for this project is ATMEGA 8 forms the heart and central controlling unit for the project as it controls the three relays used for the switching of the whole processes. From the control of the first relay to the last relay, it is being governed by microcontroller. The entire unit is microcontroller based, the microcontroller through the communication received from the first relay which serves as a monitoring and switching device, the first relay monitor either the IBEDC or generator’s voltage to know which to switch to by comparing the voltages which is displayed on the LED ( Light emitting diode ) display. If the voltage compared is IBEDC it relates this to the microcontroller which triggers the second relay to put off the existing source, that is, generator, and switch the supply back to IBEDC and the microcontroller triggers the third relay which put ON an LED to show power supply availability and to put off the generator
    When there is power outage, which the microcontroller senses through the second relay by the compared voltages value, the microcontroller triggers this relay to switch to existing generator. The rating of the first relay is a 12V 80A, the second relay is 12V 30A while the third relay is 12V 25A. Other components used are sub-circuit needed for the working of the major components explained above.
    A sub-circuit called reset circuit is connected to the microcontroller to enable its operation, the heart of the project is the control unit which uses an ATMEGA8 microcontroller, this microcontroller controls the activities of all major components connected to it.

    Design Consideration of a Change-over Switch
    Circuit Diagram Showing the Microcontroller Section Connection to the Reset

    Fig. 4.2: Circuit Diagram Showing the Microcontroller Section Connection to the Reset
    This section gives instruction to the all the sub-circuits connected to it while all the sensors monitoring the environmental parameters report to the microcontroller via a written set of programming codes written in ASSEMBLY language to activate it sensing operation, measure and give the value in analogue data to the microcontroller which converts it to digital signal, a format recognized by the ATMEGA Circuit. It constantly monitors the signal from the relays before it takes action. It checks if any corrective action is to be taken for the condition at that instant of time. In case such a situation arises, it activates the actuators to perform a controlled operation.
    A programmer is used to program these instructions into the microcontroller chip. The assembler software; MPASM converts text to machine code. Inside the microcontroller, the program is stored in the EPROM (Electrical Programmable Read Only Memory). The instructions programmed into the microcontroller work by moving and manipulating data in memory locations as user files and registers call RAM (Random Access Memory).
    Master clear reset circuit
    From the diagram shown in the above figure, Pin 1 is the reset pin. The reset logic is used to place the device into a known state. The source of the reset can be determined by using the device status bits. The reset logic is designed with features that reduce system cost and increase system reliability. While MCLR voltage is less than +4V, the microcontroller is held at reset point, when the voltage rises beyond +4V, program begins. Diode IN4148 D4 helps discharge the capacitor quickly when power is down; Resistor R33 is chosen as 10KΩ to limits the current flowing into MCLR from capacitor C3 in the event of MCLR pin breakdown.
    It should be noted that most of the microcontroller pins are input pins by default apart from some designated pins like RESET, OSILLATORS, +VE and –VE pins, therefore to set some pins to output pins in order for signals to be generated from them, the following commands/ instruction were initiated at the start of the codes writing before proceeding to others set of instructions. We can configure the ports as output; this is done through program codes written thus;
    To set as output Clear PORTC
    In the above piece of codes, the first line selects the bank where the register PORTC is found, that is Bank0. Clearing the port, done with line two, initializes the port. The third line is responsible for moving to Bank1 where the TRIS register is found, clearing TRIS means all the pins of port are outputs (the direction of data is to the LCD), and finally the last line moves back to the default Bank0. Bits 5 and 6 of the status register are responsible for the bank selection.
    Another sub-circuit know as relay driver From the above circuit, each relay section was used to switch the Feeder ON and OFF, with the target condition in mind, the generate +12V supply from the power supply section which is applied to the coils of the each relay, capacitor 470uF was connected to prevent spikes by eliminating over and false clicking of the relay; diode IN4007 connected together with relay and connected in a reversed direction to function as a protection diode, transistor TIP 41 was used to amplify the voltage to the microcontroller and the resistors 200 and 10K resistors are protecting the microcontroller pin against over voltage.
    i. RELAY: This is an electromagnetic switch. Switching on/off of relays is based on the flow of current through its coil. Relay is used for switching on/off various high voltage circuits changeover switch.
    ii. TRANSFORMER: This a device used for stepping up and down of voltages. Transformer is one of the most important components of the automatic changeover switch. The job of the transformer is to step down 220v to15v as the output of the automatic changeover switch.
    iii. RECTIFIERS: The rectifier circuit consists of a rectifies in series with the AC input to rectifies and the load requiring the DC output i.e. it convert AC to DC.
    iv. DIODE: These are two terminal devices which exhibit low resistance to current flow in one direction and hinder resistance to resistance to current in the other direction. Diode is electronic components.
    v. CAPACITORS: These are passive components that provide a means of storing electrical energy in form of an electric field.
    vi. REGULATOR: These are device that are used control the rate of current or voltage that from in a process.
    vii. LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED): This is a small semiconductor devices which emit light when small forward current is applied to them.
    RESISTORS: These are defines as devices that alter or resist the flow of current in an electric circuit.
    TRANSISTORS: These are three terminal devices which is used in automatic changeover switch circuit to generate oscillation signal, amplification of signal and switch on/off various circuit.
    CONTACTOR: This is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. A contactors controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit.
    CONNECTOR: This is an electrical device that is used for joining circuit together.
    FUSE AND FUSE HOLDER: This is a very important component in an automatic changeover switch. Fuses are used to self-destruct and protect the circuit from flow of heavy voltage.
    CUT OUT FUSE: This is a combination of a fuse and switch, used in primary- overhead feeder lines and taps to protect.
    VERO BOARD: This is a brand of strip board, a pre-formed circuit board material of copper strips on an insulating board.
    SOLDER: This is a fusible metal alloy used to join together metal work pieces and having a melting point below that of the work piece.
    JUMPER: This a short length of conductor used to close a break in or by pass of an electrical circuit.


    5.1 Brief Introduction of the Chapter

    This chapter reviews the materials used in the construction of project. It contains the choice of materials used; the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME), construction of the project and the test result.

    5.2 Choice of Materials
    The following factors are considered for choosing the materials:
    Magnetic Contactor, 220/240V, 20A
    Relay, 220/240V
    Digital voltmeter, 220/240
    Miniature circuit breaker, 220/240V, 16A
    Indicator Light, 220/240V
    Package box
    Mounting rail
    Single core cable, 2.5mm2 (red)
    Single core cable, 2.5mm2 (black)
    Single core flexible cable, 0.75mm2
    Packet screw
    Packet Nylon cable ties

    5.2.1 Materials used
    Magnetic Contactor
    Digital voltmeter
    Miniature circuit breaker
    Indicator Light
    Package box
    Mounting rail
    Single core cable
    Single core flexible cable
    Packet screw
    Packet Nylon cable ties

    5.3.1 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) for a 10KVA Automatic Change Over Project
    Total (N)

    CAPACITORS: 10µF, 1000µF, 47 µF

    DIODES: IN4007, IN4148


    RESISTORS:47(, 330 (, IK(, 10K(, 220(, 10(, 22K(, 100(, 150K(




    ATMEGA 8


    12V 30A, 12V 80A AND 12V 25A RELAYS










    1mm DRILL BIT








    IC SOCKETS 14X14












    5.4 Construction of the Project
    5.4.1 Design
    As stated earlier in previous sections, this ATS design is for single phase supply. The circuit can be divided into two major parts namely
    The Power circuit
    The Control circuit
    Though these two circuits work hand in hand, the control circuit is the brain box of the device that ‘gives the orders’. The design is an adaptation from some already existing designs but some modifications have been carried out on it to ensure that it takes care of some issues not considered in previous designs. The circuit for this project work is therefore designed to perform the following functions.
    Ensure that both sources of power do not supply at the same time and this is ensured through its electrical interlocks.
    It ensures that when primary supply is restored, it is monitored and confirmed that it is not just momentary or a surge before it stops the generator and connects it to load.
    Ensures that the whole installation i.e. the device and the load is well protected with the use of miniature circuit breakers
    5.4.2 Construction

    • The Power section: The power section of the ATS is responsible for the switching between generator and primary source of supply. The circuit diagram for this is shown in figure 5.1
    The power section
    Power circuit

    Fig. 5.1: Power Circuit
    The miniature circuit breakers, B2, and B3 are meant for isolation and protection of various parts of the circuit. The contactors C1 and C2 are the generator and primary source contactors respectively. The control circuit send signals to this circuit on when to switch and to which supply to switch.

    • The Control section: This is the brain box of the device. It controls everything that goes on in the entire ATS and ensures that the circuit works exactly the way it is configured. This section can be divided into two parts which are the auto – start section and the auto – transfer section. The auto – transfer section can be further divided into two circuits namely the generator auto – transfer circuit and the primary source auto – transfer circuit.

    5.4.2 Various Tools & Equipment Needed For Fabrication

    Fig. 5.1: Soldering wire Fig. 5.2: Flux

    Fig. 5.3: Wire cutter Fig. 5.4: Multimeter

    Soldering, multimeter soldering wire and multimeter
    Soldering, multimeter soldering wire and multimeter

    5.4.3 Soldering
    Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relative low melting point. Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal, which is below 40000C (7520F). The filler metal used in the process is called solder.
    In a soldering process, heat is applied to the parts to be joint by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. After the metal cools, the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal, but have adequate strength.
    Soldiering is something that needs to be practiced. These tips should help you began successful so you can stop practicing and get down to some serious building.
    Keep the iron tip clean. A clean iron tip means better heat conduction and a better joint. Use a wet sponge to clean the tip between joints.
    Double check points. It is good idea to check all the solders joints with an Ohm meter after they are cooled. If the joint measures any more than a few tenths of an ohm, then it may be a good idea to resolder it.
    Use the proper iron. Remember that bigger joints will take longer to heat up with an 30W iron than with a 150w Iron.
    Solder small parts first. Solder resistors, jumper leads, diodes and any other small parts before you solder larger parts like capacitors and transistors. This makes assembly much easier.

    5.5 Test(s) Results of Test
    The importance of testing in the field of Electronic and Electrical Engineering before, during and after the implementation of a design cannot be overemphasized. This is of great importance because there is need to analyze the functions and working conditions of components before using them in a circuit. Various tools and equipment are available for carrying out these tests depending on the kind of test. Circuits could also be simulated using different software packages in order to observe how they work and make necessary corrections and adjustments before implementation on hardware.
    In the course of implementing these circuits, the test instruments used were the multimeter, variable and fixed dc supply, variable and fixed ac supply. The 230Vac relays were tested to ascertain their working condition; each of them was tested separately. The relay was plugged to the base and a fixed 230V a.c source was used in energizing it through pins A1 and A2 (the coil) and it was confirmed working. The contacts Normally Open (N.O) and Normally Close (N.C) were also tested using a multimeter in the continuity range. The N.C contacts were short circuited when the relay was not connected to supply (i.e. when the relay was not energized) and open circuited when the relay was energized. Reverse was however the case for the N.O contacts as they were open circuited when the relay was de-energized and short circuited when it was energized.
    5.5.1 Circuit Testing and Results
    The test on the contactor was carried out using the supply from the generator and a 60W bulb which served as the load. The supply was connected to the contactor via the terminals A1 and A2 (coil), a neutral and live supply to three of its incomer terminals as the contactor is four pole and the 60W bulb connected to the three corresponding outgoing terminals. The voltage was varied from 0V and the contactor did not respond until 110V. At 110V, the contactor responded by energizing and the bulb came on but the intensity was low. As the voltage was increased, the intensity of the lamp also increased. This implies that the contactor will be suitable for proper operation between 110- 230Vac supply. Likewise the voltmeter was tested by connecting three-single phase supply to its pins. The circuit breakers and indicator lamps were also tested and confirmed working.
    The finished work was tested with a 2.0kVA Generator with a rated capacity of 8.33A as the secondary source and a mini residential apartment with a connected load of about 14A supplied from the primary source. For the generator to work perfectly with the circuit for automatic starting and transfer, the key must be at the “ON” position. The terminal of the kick starter has six wires connected to it, two of which are for switching off the generator, two for putting it ON and the other two for starting it. In connecting the automatic power transfer switch to the generator, only four of the wires which are used for starting and switching off the generator are needed.
    In order to detect the function of each wire, a short test was conducted. A short piece of wire peeled on both ends was taken to be the bridging plug. To find out the wires meant for starting the generator, the key was turned to the ON position and two of the six wires were picked simultaneously at random and bridged with the short piece of wire. When a particular two were bridged, the generator cranked and was about to start indicating the starting wires of the gen. It should be noted however that the generator can either be started by pulling it or with the key. It can only be started with the key or work with the project if the battery is fully charged and in proper working condition. If the battery is bad, the generator will not work with the ATS and cannot also be started with the key. The user will have to result to pulling it to start. To detect the wires meant for switching off the generator, the generator was started. While it was working, two of the four wires were picked at random and bridged at the terminals. On bridging a particular two, the gen shutdown and the wires were also marked.
    The mains supply to the building was connected to the incomer terminals of the circuit breakers B1 – B3 while the supply from the generator was connected to the incomer terminal of the circuit breaker B4. The load was connected to the outgoing terminal of the circuit breaker B.

    Construction of Automatic Changeover Switch
    Construction of Automatic Changeover Switch

    Fig. 5.5: Construction of Automatic Changeover Switch


    6.1 Summary of the Project Chapter by Chapter
    Chapter one introduces the automatic change over switch as the zeal for change over on public power supply and stand-by generator increases, Engineers have researched deep into the different ways and methods of achieving power change-over both manual and automatic types
    Chapter Two discusses the literature review of the inverter which explains the historical background of the device, and the theories and concepts relevant to the research of the project.
    Chapter Three is on research methodology and design of the project.
    Chapter Four explains the Principle of Operation, Working Operation of A 10 KVA Change Over Switch, Digital multimeter, DMM facilities using integrated circuit technology, most DMMs are able to offer additional test capabilities including; Capacitance, Temperature, Frequency , Transistor, Continuity etc.
    Chapter Five discusses the construction of Automatic Changeover Switch, Choice of Materials, Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) for a 10KVA Automatic Change Over, Materials used Various Tools & Equipment Needed for Fabrication and Soldering, Test(s) Results of Test. It is imbedded in each chapter relevant figures as need arises.

    6.2 Problems Encountered
    Power supply instability in developing countries creates a need for automation of electrical power generation or alternative sources of power to back up the utility supply. This automation becomes necessary as the rate of power outage becomes predominantly high. Most industries and commercial processes are partly dependent on generators and public power supply which is epileptic especially in tropical Africa countries where Nigeria forms a part. However, if the starting of the generator is automatically done by a relay which switches the battery voltage to ignition coil of the generator while the main power relay switches the load to either public supply or generator, the down time would greatly be reduce thereby maintaining the tempo of production in such industries. The approach used in this work is the modular approach where the overall design is first broken into functional blocks. Each of these blocks carries out a specific function in the entire system by the interconnections between the block.
    In any technical work carried out, there are bounds to be problems either on the board or the component been used. Some faults on the board while soldering which lead to the damage of some component that will be used was encountered. Then will trace it out the fault and rectify the problem. In the course of this project work, there is always power failure at most times which slow down the rate of construction of the automatic changeover switch control circuit because power supply is needed for soldering of components. Also some of the components were not readily available, and those that were available were bought and kept in good condition, while other components were easy to get at electronics stores along Ogunpa, Ibadan, Oyo State.

    6.3 Conclusion
    An automatic power changeover switch has been designed and constructed. The prototype of the automatic power changeover switch worked according to the specification and quite satisfactorily. The device is quite cheap, reliable and easy to operate. Whenever there is power outage, it reduces stress for manpower changeover. The automatic changeover system has immense advantage in every area where uninterrupted power is required. Whenever the reliability of electrical supply from the utilities is low and wherever continuity of supply is necessary, the automatic changeover system switches to an alternative source from main supply and vice versa. Hence this device can be of Industrial or domestic use where power supply is available with a stand-by power source.

    6.4 Recommendations
    Considering the problem encountered, the knowledge and the training acquired during the course of this project, the recommendation can be made. This automatic changeover switch is reliable and easy to understand it operation. This system can be used for automatic changeover of power supply and auxiliary supply. This automatics changeover switch can be used in our home and offices. It can be used for effective switching of electricity supply.
    It is further recommended from the experience acquired during the course of this project that:
    The practical session carried out during the course of study should be review to meet up with the current trends of study in order advanced part of the world.
    The choice of project topic should base on student’ specialization to enhance the interest and effectiveness in completion of the project work.
    Further work may be carried out on this project in order to improve its function.

    Ahmed, M.S, A.S. Mohammed (2006). “Development of a single phase Automatic Changeover Switch”, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria.
    Atser A. Roy, Gesa, F. Newton & Aondoakaa, I. Solomon (2014). “Design and Implementation of a 3-Phase Automatic Power Change-over Switch”. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). e-ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936 Volume-3, Issue-9, pp-07-14
    Brown, P. E, J. Guditis, “Critical Power System Functional Block diagram”. Critical Power Automation Transfer Systems-Design and Application, pp18-19.
    Hatem A. (2014). “Automatic changeover switch for power source” Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza , Gaza, Palestine.
    http://www.articlesbase.com/tool_and_equipments. November, 2009.
    Kolo, J.G. (2007). “Design and Construction of a Single Phase Automatic Change-Over Switch”, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.
    L.S. Ezema, B.U. Peter and O.O. Harris (2012), “Design of Automatic Change-Over Switch with Generator Control Mechanism”, Electrical Power and Electronic Development Department Projects Development Institute, 3(3):127-129. Available: www.journals.savap.org.pk
    Oladokun A.S. (2013), “Design and Construction of an Automatic Mains and Phase Changer”. Paper on “Automatic transfer switch (ATS) based on a programmable logic controller (PLC)”, Mechatronics, 2004, ICM ’04. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference, Issue: 3 -5
    Robert D. O. (2010), “Design and Construction of Three Phase Automatic Transfer Switch”. A Thesis Submitted to the School of Informatics and Engineering, Regent University College of Science and Technology,01 – 06.
    Saiful A.A. (2008), “Automatic Mains Failure (AMF) System”. A Thesis submitted to The Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering University, Malaysia Pahang. 01pp.
    Silva, R. “How automatic transfer switches work”, retrieved online from

  • EEC 125 | Define the following elements as related to a magnetic circuit

    Magnetic flux is the surface integral of the normal components of the magnetic field B over that surface. It is usually denoted as ∅. The SI unit of magnetic flux is Weber
    ∅ = BAcosø
    ∅ = Magnetic flux
    B = Magnetic field
    A = area
    ø = Angle between a perpendicular vector to the magnetic field and magnetic flux
    Magnetic flux density, B is the measure of the magnetic flux passing through a unit area in a plane at right angle to the flux. The SI unit of magnetic flux density is Weber per meter square (wb/m²), B = ∅/A
    Magnemotive force (M.M.F) This is the flux which drives magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit (i.e the route or path which is followed by magnetic flux) and correspond to electromotive force (e.m.f) in an electric circuit. It’s usually measured in Ampere turns
    F = IN, where F = Magnemotive force, I = current, N = number of turns

    state three factors in which the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field depends

    I. Strength of magnetic field
    II. Strength of electric current
    III. Length of the conductor

    Demonstrate the law of magnetic force of attraction and opposition with the aid of a diagram using a two bar magnets

    The law of magnetic force of repulsion state that if two conductor carry current in opposite direction is said to be repulsion while the law of magnetic force of attraction state that if the two fluxes tend to neutralize each other in the space between conductor is said to be law of attraction i.e unlike pole attract each other.
    1. A conductor of active length 0.3m moves in a magnetic field at a linear velocity of 500m/s. If the magnetic flux density is 0.05T, calculate the average value of the induced e.m.f, if the direction of movement of the conductor is perpendicular to the field.
      The average value of the induced e.m.f = magnetic flux density × length × velocity
      Therefore e.m.f, E = BLV
      B = 0.05T, L = 0.3m, velocity= 500m/s
      0.3×0.05×500 = 7.5volts
    2. A coil of 1000 turns and length 0.2m carries a current of 5A. If the cross sectional area of the magnetic circuit is proportional to the flux 1.0cm² and the flux produced by the coil is 0.15mWb. Calculate the permeability of the magnetic material.
      L = 0.2m, N = 1000 turns, I = 5A, A = 1.0cm² = 0.01m², ∅ = 0.15mWb
      Length= L, number of turns= N, current= I, area = A, flux = 0.15×10–³Wb
      ∅ = BA; B = ∅/A; B = 0.00015/0.01
      Flux density, B = 0.015wb/m²
      Magnetic field=H
      H = IN/L
      (5 × 1000) ÷ 0.2 = 25,000A/m
      Calculate the permeability of the magnetic material
      Permeability of the magnetic material = flux density/ magnetic field
      B/H = 0.015/25000
      6 × 10–⁷ Tesla/Ampere meter






    BETWEEN 2nd DECEMBER, 2019 TO 28th MARCH, 2020





    The technical report contains a detailed explanation of the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme(SIWES), the Transmission Company of Nigeria(TCN), Papalanto Works Centre, the variuos departments in the company including the departments I worked under my four months industrial training and the problem encountered during my Industrial placement.


    I hereby declare that, I Ojo Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa, of matriculation number 2018232040045 of the department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering of The Polytechnic, Ibadan underwent the four months Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) at Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Papalanto Works Centre, PMB 1001, Olorunsogo, Ogun State, from 2nd of December, 2019 to March, 2020.

    MR. M. T. FOLAMI


    I want to use this medium to appreciate all the workers of the Transmission Company of Nigeria for their friendly attitude towards IT students and the HODs of the departments i participated in. Special thanks to the PC&M crew in general, ENGR Adegbenle, ENGR Oyebisi, Mr. Kola and Mr. Auwal for their knowledgeable contributions throughout my Industrial training in the company.


    I dedicate this project to the one who deserves all the thanks, Almighty God for his divine protection and grace from the start to the end of my Industrial placement.
    I dedicate this report to my father for his support both financially and mental encouragement and also finding me the IT placement for my SIWES.


    Abstract i
    Declaration ii
    Acknowledgement iii
    Dedication iv
    Introduction 8
    History of SIWES 8
    Objectives and aims of SIWES in Nigeria 8
    Importance of SIWES 9
    2.1. The power system grid in Nigeria 10
    2.2. History of Transmission Company of Nigeria 11
    2.2.1. Vision and Mission 12
    2.2.2. Scope of their activities 12
    2.3. Organization structure of the Transmission Company of Nigeria 13
    2.4. The department at the transmission of Nigeria, TCN, Papalanto Works centre and their functions 14
    3.1. Introduction 16
    3.2. The lines maintenance department, LMD. 16
    3.2.1. The work done and experience gained in LMD 17 The transmission tower line inspection 17 The replacement of the yellow phase conductor linking the line isolator and the line circuit breaker 17 Replacement of the 330kV transmission tower glass disk insulation to a silicon composite insulator 18
    3.3. The Electrical maintenance department, EMD 20
    3.3.1. The work done and experience gained 20 Topping of the insulation oil of the line current transformer 20 Refilling of the SF6 in a circuit breaker 22 Conduction of annual preventive maintenance 24 Illumination of the Olorunsogo 330kV switchyard 24 Repairs of the yellow phase line current transformer oil leakage 24 Repairs of the bus isolator broken finger socket 25 Lubrication of the stiffed movable parts 25
    3.4. The Protection, Control & Metering department 26
    3.4.1. Work done under the protection, control & metering department 26 The energy reading for the end of the month 26 Annual preventive maintenance of a circuit breaker 27 Maintenance of the circuit breaker 28 The replacement of burnt closing coil in the circuit breaker 28 the failure of the hydraulic oil pump motor to actuate due to defective motor relay contactor 29 The failure of a circuit breaker to close 29 The design of a protection wiring scheme modification 30 Rearrangement of the wiring system of a circuit breaker 30 Installation and commissioning of a transformer 31
    3.4.2. Experience gained under the department 32
    3.5. The system operations department 33
    3.5.1. Work done under the system operation department 33
    3.5.2. Work experience gained 34
    3.5.3. Equipment and materials used in the system operation department 34
    4.1. Introduction 40
    4.2. The functions and usage of the electrical equipment 40
    5.1. Conclusion 50
    5.2. Problem encountered during the SIWES training. 50
    5.3. Recommendations and suggestions 50


    Siwes report first page

    The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), also known as Industrial Training (IT) is a compulsory skills training program designed to expose and prepare students of the Nigerian universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, colleges of technology and colleges of agriculture for the industrial work situation they are likely to meet after graduation.
    The scheme also afford students the opportunity of familiarizing and exposing themselves to the needed experience in handling equipment and machinery that are usually not available in their institutions. Before the establishment of the scheme, there was a growing need or concern among industrialists, that graduates of institutions of higher learning lacked adequate practical background studies preparatory for employment in industries. Therefore, employers were of the opinion that the theoretical education in higher institutions was not responsive to the needs of the employers of labor.
    The introduction, initiation and design of the SIWES were done by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973, to acquaint students with the skills of handling employers equipment and machinery. It was solely funded by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) during its formative years. However, due to financial constraints, the fund withdrew from the scheme in 1978.
    The federal government noting the significance of the skills training which the SIWES is, handed the management of the scheme to both the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) in 1979. The management and implementation of the scheme was however reverted to the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) by the Federal government in November, 1984 and the administration was effectively taken over by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in July, 1985, with funding solely borne by the Federal Government
    Arising from the need of founding the organization or scheme, its (SIWES) objectives as an organization are as listed below:
    Exposing students to the work method and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions.
    Providing an avenue for students in institutions of higher learning to acquire Industrial skills and experience in their course of study, which are restricted to Engineering and Technology including Environmental studies and other courses that may be approved courses of NCE (Technical), NCE (Agricultural), NCE (Business), NCE (Fine and Applied Arts) and NCE (Home Economics) in colleges of Education are also included.
    It provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theory and practice
    Preparing the students for the industrial work situation they are likely to meet after their graduation.
    Making the transition from school to the world of work easier and enhance students contact for later job placement.
    Enlisting and strengthening of employers involvement in the entire educational process and prepare students for employment after graduation.
    Provide students the opportunity to develop attitudes conducive to effective interpersonal relationships towards the job.
    Ernest placement and strengthen employees involvement in the educational process of preparing students for employment in industries.
    It exposes students to more practical work methods and techniques.
    It also prepares the students for the labor market after graduation.
    It provides students with an opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge in real life situations.
    It strengthens links between the employers, universities and Industrial Training Fund (ITF).



    The transmission company of Nigeria

    Electrical energy has a lot of importance all-over the world and therefore being used for different purposes in complexity or simplicity either for industrial purposes or for the satisfaction of the end user. We would have noticed that, the moment we switch on our electrical appliances at home, it works once there is electricity. Well, have you ever wondered how the electricity got to the appliance fast? This involves a very technical and systematic process on making the electricity available for our maximum usage.
    Therefore, making this electrical power or energy circulate throughout the Nation (Nigeria), the process involves three (3) stages, which are the generation sector of the energy, the transmission of this energy and finally the distribution of the energy through a systematically arranged grid known as the National Grid.
    In Nigeria, a total number of twenty-three (23) generating power plants are available with the capacity to generate 11,165.4 MW of electricity in Nigeria. The energy are mostly generated through thermal and hydropower sources which comes from fossil fuels especially gases which accounts for eighty-six percent (86%) of the capacity in Nigeria with the remainder gotten from hydropower.
    These sources of energy are used to set the turbine engine in motion to produce an induced electromotive force (voltage) ranging from 10-16kV. The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Papalanto Works Centre where I did my Industrial Training (IT) was linked with a generating station which has two (2) phases; Phase 1 having 8 generators (Gas Turbine Generator, GTG) and 4 transformers (Gas Main Transformers, GMT) with 2 generators serving a transformer each. The generators generate a voltage of 10kV before the transformer of 105MVA capacity is used to step it up to 330kV. Meanwhile, the Phase 2 has 6 generators (4 Gas Turbine Generators, GTG and 2 Steam Turbine Generators, STG) and 7 transformers (4 Gas Main Transformers, GMT and 3 Steam Main Transformers, SMT) but a transformer is inactive. The GTG generates 10kV each and the STG generates 16kV each and transferred into a step-up transformer of 150MVA capacity before it’s step-up to 330kV.
    The Transformers have their primaries to be 10/16kV and their secondaries to be 330kV being a step-up transformer. It is generated at this high voltage to reduce power loss over a long distance along the transmission lines (conductors) which are connected to the National Grid from all generation stations in Nigeria for transmitting.
    This is the next phase of getting the energy to the consumers, the transmission sector serves as an intermediary of the voltages transferred from the generation sector to the distribution sector, standing as an interface between them (generation and distribution).

    This process starts by the transmission sector receiving High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) of 330kV from the generation and transporting it through transmission lines (conductors) to another transmission sub-station to step-down to 132kV by a transformer and further transmission to a sub-station to step-down to 33kV for transmitting it to a distribution substation or injection sub-station.
    This is the last stage of electricity before it gets to the consumers, they accept voltage at 33kV and step it down with the aid of distribution Transformers to 11kV which is in turn stepped down to 0.415kV and transferred through a low tension pole line phase (Red, Yellow, Blue and Neutral) which it is then tapped from any of the 3 phases and a Neutral to give the 240V (household voltage appliance).
    The household voltage formula relationship:
    Line voltage: VAB, V AC, VCA
    Line voltage = √3 Phase voltage
    Vpn = 415 / √3

    The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) manages the electricity transmission network in the country; the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) emerged from the former National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) now known as the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN).
    It was brought about due to the fusion or merger of the Transmission and Operations sectors on April 1, 2004 and it was incorporated in November, 2005. It is one of the unbundled business units under the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), the company was licensed a transmission license on the 1 July, 2006 and another on the 10 June, 2013 for electricity transmission and system operations.
    The Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) licensed activities includes electricity transmission, system operations and electricity trading. It comprises of 9 transmission Regions: Bauchi, Benin, Enugu, Kaduna, Kwara, Lagos, Osogbo, Port-Harcourt and Shiroro and a National Control Centre (NCC) at Osogbo with 3 Regional Control Centre (RCC) at Benin, Kaduna and Lagos.
    It is responsible for evacuation electric power generated by the electricity Generating Companies (GenCos) and wheeling it to the Distribution Companies (DisCos). It provides the vital transmission infrastructure between the GenCos and the DisCos Feeder Sub-station.
    The Company’s vision is to be “one of the leading electricity transmission company in the world with a solid reputation for delivering reliable, cost-effective electric power to the end users in Nigeria and in West-Africa sub-station.
    It’s mission is to “cost-effective build, plan, provide operate and maintain the required assets, equipment along with a reliable and efficient transmission Grid network for evacuating and dispatching high quality electricity with minimal losses.
    The activities being carried out by the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) revolves around the electricity transmission, system operations and electricity trading which are being carried out by the Transmission Service Provider (TSP), System Operations (SO) and Market Operations (MO) by collecting the electricity generated and wheeling it to the distribution company.
    The Transmission Service Provider, TSP:
    They oversee the development and maintenance of the transmission infrastructure. It is responsible for the National inner-connected transmission system of sub-stations and power lines and providing open access transmission services. It’s role is to maintain the physical infrastructure that make up the transmission Grid and expand it to new areas.
    The System Operations, SO:
    The SO manages the flow of electricity throughout the power system from generation to distribution companies. It operates the Grid Code for the Nigerian Electricity Supply Industries (NESI). The SO has the responsibility for ensuring that the Transmission Grid lines are reliable and maintaining the technical stability of the Grid through its operations of planning, dispatch and control of the electricity on the Grid.
    The Market Operations, MO:
    The MO administers the Market rules of the Nigerian Electricity Supply Industries, NESI. It is responsible for the administration of the Electricity Market and promoting efficiency in the market.
    The Transmission Company of Nigeria, TCN, activities are generally based on;
    Operate; expand/upgrade transmission facilities for efficient and effective wheeling of generated electricity.
    Build a Transmission Grid that can efficiently evacuate all generated power.
    Create adequate network redundancies to ensure at least 99.9% reliability.
    Reduce transmission losses to less than 5%.
    Pursue inter-connection with neighboring countries for power exchange with associated cost savings from the sharing of reserve capacity and energy resources.
    Provide an effective project management system.
    Provide standard human capacity development of the Transmission Company of Nigeria staff for high level performance.
    Standardization of procurement procedure to reflect international standard.
    Ensuring that safety and environmental issues are managed to meet international standards.
    Improve the TCN’s revenue base to ensure a self-sufficient and self-sustaining company.

    The Transmission Service Provider, TSP:
    Group of transformer used for high voltage for end consumers


    The Organizational Structure of the TCN, Papalanto Works Centre

    The Organizational Structure of the TCN, Papalanto Works Centre
    The Organizational Structure of the TCN, Papalanto Works Centre

    The Transmission Company of Nigeria, TCN, Papalanto Works Centre is divided into units of various departments which are 8 in numbers, namely;
    Human Resources department
    Accounting department
    Protection, Control and Metering department
    Electrical Maintenance department
    System Lines Maintenance department
    System Operation department
    Drivers department
    Stores department

    It has an acronym “HR”. They provide essential administrative support to the executives and departmental managers (HODs) of the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Papalanto Works Centre and Olorunsogo as its Area Control Centre (ACC). The human resources department is able to assist with both complex and general administrative duties with their communication and data entry skills creating more time to carry out managerial tasks by the supervisors.
    This department is responsible for the data processing, file maintenance, communication and clerical management functions of the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Papalanto Works Centre.
    The primary purpose of every accounting department is the keeping of the ongoing financial record keeping. The account department base on the monetary information (operational expenses, salaries, donations, capital expenditures, investments, cash-flow, and utilities) which are all tracked or recorded on a monthly basis at a minimum.
    The financial history of Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), Papalanto Works Centre are being created by this department which can be used in different ways as it gives the management of the firm the financial health and wealth status of the firm at any given time.
    Being referred to as PC&M( acronym), they can be termed as the life of the electrical and electronics equipments as they are responsible for ensuring correct and efficient protection of the various electrical equipment and devices in the transmission station. They also deal with the wiring protection or configuration of the electronic equipment(relays, circuit breakers) of the Transmission Company of Nigeria(TCN), Papalanto Works Centre in Olorunsogo station and the four(4) other substations under its jurisdiction.
    They solely deal with the maintenance, protection and configurations of these equipment in the transmission station under their Area Control Centre (ACC). The department is also responsible for installation, commissioning and decommissioning, maintaining, troubleshooting and repairing of the critical systems used for detecting and responding to power system faults, controlling system devices and Metering schemes throughout the entire transmission Grid under its Area Control Centre.
    This department carries out both preventive and corrective maintenance as well as being responsible for installation, commissioning and decommissioning, troubleshooting, maintaining the equipments along with the Protection, Control and Metering( PC&M) crew as it involves the Protection of these equipments.
    This department are responsible for the maintenance of the transmission lines in any form to avoid tripping on earth fault from the feeder’s relay, maintenance of the transmission lines towers which involves cutting of elongated trees that are surrounding and in between the transmission towers that can cause disturbance or resistance in the sense of tripping caused by earth fault and bush burning respectively.
    The department is also responsible for the safety and maintenance of conductor lines in the switchyard grid throughout the stations under it’s ACC.
    The System Operations termed SO, which the workers can also be referred to as the Independent System Operators(ISO) are responsible for the management of the flow of electricity throughout the power system grid coming from the generation and going to the distribution end before getting to their respective end users. They are also responsible for ensuring that the transmission grid lines are reliable(they are maintaining their technical stability) through its operations by planning, dispatching and controlling of the Electricity flow on the Grid.
    The Independent System Operators(ISO) monitors the functionality status by monitoring and operations of the whole system of the Transmission Company of Nigeria(TCN), Papalanto Works Centre before calling on the maintenance crews if a problem persists as well as the National Control Centre NCC. There operations involves the Generation Companies(GenCos) and the Distribution Companies(DisCos) in terms of load management(the quantity of electricity to be supplied and the quantity o the electricity needed respectively) and the enforcement of the Grid discipline.
    The drivers department are responsible for the transportation of the maintenance crews(field workers) to any expected destination where there is a fault to be corrected. The drivers HOD I.e Head of Department is to direct, choose and issue the transportation fees in terms of petrol purchasing to a driver for transporting the crew to the point of work.
    This department is in charge of the safekeeping of all the electrical and electronic equipments to be used or to be repaired by the work centre in any necessary case. These equipments can be line Current Transformer(CT), line Voltage Transformer(VT), line Power Transformer(PT), Relay Sensors, Contactor motor, so on and so forth.


    This chapter contains the discussion of the work done and the experience gained during my four (4) months Industrial Training course which includes every training in each of the department visited or attached. The first most important experience gained is the importance and the very significance of safety because any single mistake made at switch yard will leads to instant death by electrocution, there is no second chance of mistake at the Transmission Company of Nigeria, TCN, because of the High Voltage Alternating Current, HVAC, the company is dealing with. Therefore, many emphasis and precautions were always taken before entering the switch yard to perform any kind of work scheduled to be done even for inspection purposes.
    Having said this, the first and very crucial procedure to take before starting any work in the switchyard is to; collect the work permit or work and test permit from the operator on duty.
    Have the operator open the isolator or the disconnected on both sides and finally.
    Ensure that the operator on duty guarantees that the electrical equipments are safe to be worked on before proceeding with the work.
    It is necessary for the maintenance crew to apply the ground wire so as to discharge(Earth) the electrical equipment of any residual charge, this is done to prevent electrocution of the maintenance crew by the residual charge inthe equipment.
    Safety is very crucial to this job therefore it’s advisable that the maintenance crew are putting on there safety materials like the safety boots, hard hats (helmet) and so on. The scope of work done and experience gained will be analyzed below on each of the department visited in their order of visitation. During the period of four 4 months being spent under the supervision of the various head of department(s) HODs of the various departments I was posted to which are of namely, the Lines Maintenance Department (LMD), the Electrical Maintenance Department (EMD), the Protection, Control and Metering Department (PC&M) and the System Operation (SO).
    The period spent in this department was a total of four, 4 weeks (2nd December to 27th December, 2019). This department which is being lead by Engr. Oyetunde as the senior manager and the HOD of the department. The line maintenance department is responsible for the maintenance of the transmission line conductors in and out of the switchyard. Their activities evolves around carrying out of the preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance of the transmission line conductors in and out of the switchyard.
    PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: These are the maintenance done according to the name to prevent and unforseen faults tripping of the relays on the transmission line conductors. Examples of the preventive maintenance is the Inspection of the transmission towers and line tracing, the Inspection of the transmission towers Insulators (Glass disk Insulators) and the cutting of crippling plants around the transmission towers.
    CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE: These are the maintenance done for the actual repair of already existing faults on the transmission line conductors inside or outside the switchyard. Examples are the replacement of broken or melted conductors in the switchyard and the changing of the glass disk Insulators to the silicon composite Insulators.
    The scope and procedure of the works done as well as the experience gained after the work was done are going to be listed below. They are as follow;
    Transmission tower lines inspection.
    Replacement of the Yellow Phase conductor linking the bus isolator and the line breaker.
    Replacement of the 330kV tower glass disk Insulators to a silicon composite Insulator. THE TRANSMISSION TOWER LINE INSPECTION
    The scope behind the inspection done on the transmission towers involves line tracing (it is the term used in transmission referring to the clearing of bushes or the cutting down of dangerously high trees beneath or close to the towers), cutting of cripplers ( plants that grows on the tower which tends to crawl up on the tower) and inspection of the glass disk Insulators in case of corrosion of the Insulator. These are the basis of preventive maintenance of the line maintenance department on the transmission towers.
    After undergoing the work process, I learned the following:
    I can successfully locate a transmission tower number on the nameplate of the tower.
    I understand the basics and importance of Line tracing.
    The equipment used is the cutlass for cutting of the bushes around the towers. THE REPLACEMENT OF THE YELLOW PHASE CONDUCTOR LINKING THE LINE ISOLATOR AND THE LINE CIRCUIT BREAKER
    In the Papa 132/33kV transmission sub-station, the Yellow Phase conductor linking the isolator and line breaker was replaced due to its melting at isolator end of the conductor. The melting of the conductor (The Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) was as a result of the heat generated in the conductor when High Voltage Alternating Current, HVAC, pass through it.
    The equipments and materials required to carry out the job are:
    Ground stick and ground wire.
    Spanners and a pair of pliers.
    The Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced cable.
    Measuring tape.
    Bolt and nut.
    Apply the ground wire using the ground stick in order to discharge the electrical equipment from any residual charges by connecting the ground wire at the end of the isolator and circuit breaker while tightening it to the earth wire around the equipment respectively.
    Lose the conductor linking the isolator and the circuit breaker at both ends and also the existing cable key because the key has also melted alongside the conductor with the aid of a spanner and a pair of pliers.
    Now, measure the length of the cable to be fixed with the aid of a measuring tape, but if a measuring tape is not available, the cables maybe placed beside each other leaving a little margin for mistake.
    Mark the length out on the new cable, tightening of the conductor at both ends before cutting is necessary so as to avoid the scattering or misalignment of the cable from its original position before cutting with the aid of a Hacksaw.
    Fix the one end of the cable into a cable key, we can always use a pair of pliers to the conductor end in order to fit into the cable key.
    Connect the conductor end with the cable key on the isolator end and tighten the connection by using bolt and nut while the other end of the conductor is screwed to the circuit breaker.
    At the end of the job, I learnt the following;
    The reason for using a copper cable key in the connection.
    How to cut and fix a conductor into a cable key of its size.
    How to successfully apply a ground wire using a grounding stick to an electrical equipment.

    Engineer (NEPA) working on LT transformer
    Engineer (NEPA) working on LT transformer

    The type of transmission tower is determined mostly on the number of Insulators the transmission tower gantries or cross arms are carrying. For further explanation, the 330kV transmission towers carries a total of 18 or 20 Insulators on each gantry respectively, while the 132kV transmission towers carries a total of 11 or 10 Insulators on their gantries respectively and the 33kV transmission towers carries 3 each on their gantries.
    The replacement of Olorunsogo Ayede 330kV transmission tower lines Insulator after Idi-aba, Abeokuta were replaced from the previous glass disk Insulators to a silicon composite Insulators.
    The following apparatus or equipment are needed, they are;
    The belts: These belts are being used by the climbers (the contract engineers that climbs the transmission tower), it enables them to hang up in the air while they work.
    Cutlasses: They are used to cut down bushes and clippers surrounding the transmission tower so as to create space for the climbers to climb and other workers to stand and assist the work progress.
    The grounding stick and ground wire: The grounding stick and ground wire are being used for discharging the skyline or the conductor on the gantries of the transmission tower by connecting the end of the ground wire to the skyline and the other end to the fastened to the transmission tower.
    The hook ladder: The hook ladder is being hung on the gantry of the transmission tower, it is very useful in helping the climbers get closer to the conductors before getting on the conductor after grounding the conductor.
    The High Line: These are much thicker ropes used for transferring virtually all of the equipments which range from the grounding stick and wire, the hook ladder, the composite Insulators, the conductor yoke and the pull lift to be used except from the G-shackle and wire spring from the ground to the tower climbers and from the tower gantries to the ground.
    The Conductor Yoke: The conductor yoke is placed on the conductors of the tower gantry. It is used to suspend or tension the conductors before connecting it with the pull-lift.
    The Pull-lift: The Pull-lift is used to jack up the conductor yoke to enable the proper tensioning of the conductors or skyline.
    Procedures for the Job:
    The bushes around the transmission tower is going to be cleared if there are any bushes around the tower with the aid of the cutlass.
    As at the time of clearing the bushes, the climbers woube getting prepared by fastening their belts on them and the high line is then strapped to their belts while they climb the tower.
    When the climbers get to the tower gantry they are to work on, the high line is then thrown down for knotting, after the knotting, the ground stick and ground wire is passed up to the climbers for the earthing of the skyline, the hook ladder is then passed up to them after the earthing is done.
    The pull-lift and conductor yoke is knotted to the high line and transferred to the climbers, the conductor yoke is fitted to rest on the skyline while the pull-lift is hastened on the conductor yoke, when the pull-lift is being jacked it cause the tensioning of the skyline.
    When the skyline is finally properly tensioned, the glass disk Insulator contract for its removal. During this process, the G-shackle and the wire spring should be prepared by fastening it to the bottom leg of the tower.
    At this point the high line is hastened around the G-shackle and wire spring for the easy dropping of the glass disk Insulator. Also, the silicon composite Insulator is tightened to the high line to be transferred to the climbers. Then, as the glass disk Insulator is coming down, the silicon composite Insulator is going up to the climbers.
    The replacement of the Olorunsogo-Ayede 330kV transmission tower glass disk Insulators to silicon composite Insulators was indeed the best experience I had, I also learnt a lot during the course of the job which were very important and crucial points to observe, and they are as listed below;
    I learnt how to differentiate between transmission towers of different voltage ratings.
    I learnt how to knot the equipments around the high line to be transferred to the climbers.
    I also learnt how to separate the glass disk Insulators into smaller pieces.
    I was lectured over the advantages of the silicon composite Insulators over the glass disk Insulators which are the glass disk Insulators gets corroded and break off which can cause the cutting or tripping of the skyline when it breaks, the advantage that the silicon composite Insulators do not rust during the harmattan season while the glass disk Insulators do and finally for the that the silicon composite Insulators are more durable, weighs less when compared to the glass disk insulators and the silicon composite Insulators last longer than that of the glass disk Insulators in terms of their respective expiry dates.
    After finishing my schedule with the line maintenance department, LMD I waposted to the Electrical Maintenance Department, EMD, where I spent another five(5) weeks (30th December, 2019 to the 31st January, 2020). The department is lead by Engr. Babatunde as the senior manager of the department and the HOD. This department is responsible for the maintenance and repair of all the Electrical equipments in the switchyard of the area control center and the other sub-station under its jurisdiction.
    The scope of activities done in this department are preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance.
    PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE in the sense that Preventive maintenance are procedures carried out on the equipment to ensure proper functioning of the equipments and avoid any unforeseen faults or breakdown. For example: refilling of the gas in the circuit breaker, the annual preventive maintenance (APM), topping of the insulation oil of the current transformer, lubrication of the movable parts of a line isolator and bus isolator et cetera.
    CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE is a type of maintenance that is carried out to correct or repair any existing faults in the switchyard. For example: the repair of the Yellow Phase oil leakage, repair of the bus isolator broken finger, illumination (fixing of new lighting bulbs).
    Under the five 5 weeks program spent in this department, I participated in the following jobs listed below:
    Topping of the insulation oil of the line current transformer, CT.
    Refilling of the Sulphur hexafluoride gas, SF6 gas, in the circuit breaker, CB.
    The conduction of the Annual Preventive Maintenance, APM.
    Illumination of the switchyard.
    The repair of the Yellow Phase current transformer oil leakage.
    The repairs of the bus isolator broken finger.
    Lubrication of the stiffed movable parts of the Line isolator and the bus isolator. Topping of the insulation oil of the line current transformer
    The line current transformer, CT, can be simply defined as an electrical equipment used to measure or determine the total amount of current flowing in the power system circuit. It also serves as a relay protection, in the sense that it assist the relay panel in the detection of over current, short circuit and earth fault as the current transformer helps to measure the current in the power system circuit. Therefore, any current above the rated current would send a signal to the relay panel causing the relay to trip.
    There are four, 4, types of current transformer which are the Window type, Bushing type, the Bar type and the Wound type of current transformer(s). The type of current transformer used in the transmission station grid is the Bushing current transformer which are specifically constructed to fit around a bushing. They are also mounted in a transformer or a circuit breaker mostly used for current greater than 100A.
    The insulating oil used to fill up the current Transformers are often called transformer oil, which are mainly mineral oil. There are different colors of a transformer oil, they include; Silver, Gold and plain color et cetera. The functions of a transformer oil is as follows;
    Cooling of the transformer because the current transformer carries a lot of current due to the amount of power flowing through it, then heat would be generated.
    The oil serve as an insulation medium for the current transformer for preventing the injected current from getting to the body of the current transformer so as to avoid electrocution of the maintenance workers.
    The insulation oil also helps suppress corona discharge and arcing in the transformer.
    The apparatus or tools needed to complete the job above are as follows:
    Ground stick and ground wire
    Manual hand pump and hose
    Ladder and an iron gasket.
    Procedures on the Job
    Open the bus isolator on both ends before applying the temporary ground to the Electrical equipment.
    Fix the iron gasket to the hose and then tighten it to the current transformer oil tap with the manual hand pump placed inside the transformer oil container.
    After this open the current transformer oil valve while pumping the transformer oil into the current transformer by turning the manual hand pump handle in a clockwise direction.
    Fill the current transformer to three-quarter of the current transformer oil gauge to avoid the bursting of the current transformer oil bulb.
    Close the current transformer oil valve and withdraw the remaining transformer oil in the hose into the container by turning the manual hand pump handle in the anticlockwise direction to reduce oil spillage or wastage.
    Finally, remove the temporary ground wire and close the bus isolator on both ends.
    Experience Gained
    At the Ota 132/33kV substation which the topping of the insulation oil was done, I gained the following experience:

    1. I learnt that before beginning any job in the switchyard, it is compulsory to collect the work or work and test permit and ensure the operator guarantees the electrical equipment is safe to work on.
    2. It is also important to apply the ground wire with the aid of a ground stick for proper earthing of the equipment.
    3. I learnt how to plan and improvise based on the job at hand before beginning.
    4. After the job, carry out the functionality and operational test.
    High voltage transmission line (330kv transmission lines)
    High voltage transmission line (330kv transmission lines)

    The circuit breaker is an electrical switching device which can be operated manually and automatically for controlling and protecting an electrical powered system. The circuit breaker is used for protecting or clearing any short circuit fault or any other type of electrical fault( such as electric cable faults), therefore residing to high fault current flowing through this equipment as well as the power network itself from damaging the equipment and the network permanently.
    The Circuit breakers of the high voltage alternating current varies in the form of names from different producers, but they are similar in their performance either by their operating mechanism or their quenching mechanism.
    In the sense of operating mechanism of Circuit breakers, it can be categorized into three, namely;
    Spring operated circuit breaker
    Pneumatic circuit breaker
    Hydraulic circuit breaker.
    It can also be categorized by its quenching mechanism, namely;
    Oil circuit breaker.
    Air circuit breaker.
    Sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF6) circuit breaker.
    Vacuum circuit breaker.
    The job above is done in a spring charged circuit breaker by operation and the sulphur hexafluoride gas SF6 by quenching mechanism.
    The function of the sulphur hexafluoride gas in the circuit breaker is used in the arc quenching medium of the circuit breaker as the sulphur hexafluoride gas is an electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The sulphur hexafluoride gas is used in the circuit breaker because the contacts of the breaker are opened in a high-pressure flow of sulphur hexafluoride gas and an arc is struck between them.
    The sulphur hexafluoride gas captures the conducting free electrons in the arc to form relatively immobile negative ions. This loss of conducting electrons in the arc quickly builds up enough insulation strength to extinguish the arc.
    The apparatus used in this job are a gas hose return valve adaptor and the sulphur hexafluoride gas cylinder to fill the circuit breaker with.
    Procedures for refilling the sulphur hexafluoride gas in a circuit breaker
    Open the bus isolators at both ends and open the circuit breaker.
    Prepare the apparatus by screwing the gas hose return valve adaptor to the sulphur hexafluoride gas cylinder before connecting it to the circuit breaker. Ensure the connection is tightened and secure if not apply threading to make the connection tight.
    Open the circuit breaker sulphur hexafluoride gas tap before opening the sulphur hexafluoride gas cylinder tap.
    Fill the circuit breaker continuously checking on the sulphur hexafluoride gas indicator, it is to be filled to the green bar on the indicator usually at 0.42MPa equivalent to 4.2 Bar and 60Pa/in2 , the indicator is always in any of the metrics reading listed.
    Lock the circuit breaker sulphur hexafluoride gas tap, then lock the sulphur hexafluoride gas cylinder respectively before detaching the gas hose return valve adaptor from the circuit breaker.
    Experience Gained
    I learnt that it is always important to be safety conscious by ensuring the operator guarantees the safety of the equipment and i learnt how to conduct the refilling of the sulphur hexafluoride gas of a circuit breaker.



    The annual preventive maintenance (APM), mostly done on circuit breakers in evolves two(2) processes, which are the cleaning aspect and the carrying out of the operational and functional test.
    Procedures for Carrying Out an Annual Preventive Maintenance
    The cleaning process: Before commencing the annual preventive maintenance, it is necessary to clean up the circuit breaker in and out by removing any form of dirt around the circuit breaker and cleaning the Sulphur Hexafluoride gas indicator is as important as the rest of the circuit breaker.
    The Operational and Functional Test: This involves the checof all the electrical equipments that makes up the circuit breaker and checking all other materials used for the running of the circuit breakers are in the right condition. For example, the hydraulic oill that indicates the the actuating state of the circuit breaker, the SF6 gas indicator the actuating coil state if It is not burnt and the motor contactors. After all these checks, the operational test and functional test are carried out by opening and closing the circuit breaker locally(at the circuit breaker switch) , the operator is also contacted to operate it remotely at his station.
    Experience Gained
    After the end of this job, I can conduct a proper operational and functional test with a proper annual preventive maintenance. THE ILLUMINATION OF THE OLORUNSOGO 330KV SWITCH YARD
    The illumination of the switch yard can be referred to as the switch yard lighting. It is done by providing light bulbs for illumination in the switch yard so as to counter-effect the darkness at night for security purpose o the switch yard.
    Just like the Normal household bulbs, it also gets burnt so it is going to be replaced by another bulb, but in some cases the bulb might not be the problem but the lamp holder might be. Therefore, the bulb is tested in anoda lamp holder before being condemned and the lamp holder is also changed if discovered faulty.
    All the above mentioned are the experience gained from the switch yard illumination job. REPAIRS OF THE YELLOW PHASE LINE CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT) OIL LEAKAGE
    In the OTA 132/33kV transmission station, it was discovered that there was an oil leakage in the yellow phase line current transformer which was caused by the crack in the oil bulb and it’s shaft at the top of the Current transformer cap.
    Before starting the job, the remaining transformer oil in the line current transformer was withdrawn into a separate container using the same method as of refilling the insulating oil of the current transformer.
    A long ladder is rested on the CT in order to make the maintenance crew reach the current transformer cap for washing of the grease off the body of the CT. Then the loosing of the oil bulb is done.
    Since the oil bulb has a crack, it requires a new oil bulb but due to unavailability of a new oil bulb, the crack was closed using glue and ashes, a new shaft was also cut out from a cardboard of 5pieces to make the existing shaft stronger.
    The experience gained from the job procedures above made me understand that there are no useless equipment or damaged equipments in engineering it can always be repaired. REPAIRS OF THE BUS ISOLATOR BROKEN FINGER SOCKET
    The bus isolator fingers are in-built socket controlled by a screw and a spring to create an effective contact between the finger and the socket so as to transmit electricity from the finger end to the socket end for further transmission. The fault encountered was that the screw and the spring on the socket end of the bus isolator got broken due to rust.
    First find the replacement of the screw and spring of the same length and put it in its right position.
    Make sure it is screwed tightly with the socket of the bus isolator.
    Grease the end of the socket and the finger of the isolator so as to counter-effect the rusted edge of the equipment and reduce friction.
    Now closed the isolator to confirm the finger and the socket are in the right sequence, keep pushing them together till they are connected tightly.
    If the finger and socket does not fit in, then improvise on how to make them key together, in our case we made use of a plastic ladder and sticks to push the finger into the socket.
    Experience Gained
    I learnt that the most important thing before beginning a job is to know where the fault is, know the required tools and materials needed in order to reduce stress for the job and finally, to improvise on the job is as important as hard work, dedication and patience while working on the job at hand. LUBRICATION OFTHE STIFFED MOVABLE PARTS OF AN ISOLATOR AND BUS ISOLATOR
    The isolators and bus isolators are electrical equipments used for conducting electricity from the grid to the circuit breaker and from the circuit breaker back to the grid and conducting electricity from the busbars to respective electrical equipments and from those equipments back to the busbar on the grid.
    The problem encountered is that the isolators and bus isolators are not moving(stiffed) the way the should when operated both electrically and manually.
    Procedures and Experience Gained
    The use of scalp folding would be needed as a result of the height at which the isolators are. Therefore, the scalp folding would be arranged beside the isolator to be worked on to a more comfortable height to work from.
    Lubricants like grease, oil, dissolving solvents would be applied to the movable parts of the isolator while it is being cranked( I.e. opened and closed continuously till it moves properly).
    I learnt that even without lubricating the isolator just cranking it can make it move freely, since the stiffness was caused by not using or operating the equipment for a long period of time.
    Afterthe end of my schedule at the Electrical Maintenance department, I continued my industrial training at the Protection, Control and Metering department which is a duration of 5 weeks (3rd, March to 7th, April, 2020), the department is led by the HOD named ENGR. Adegbenle.
    The PC&M is a technical department which is responsible for ensuring correct and efficient protection of the various electrical components and devices in the transmission station. They do this by carrying out correct circuit connection, clearing of faults, installation, programming and wiring protection on metering devices like circuit breaker, current transformer, relay, energy meter and so on. They achieve this with the aid of a circuit diagram of the equipment to be worked on designed by the manufacturer of the devices. The department also conducts various scheduled maintenance and tests on power equipments such as the annual preventive maintenance.
    The work done under the protection control and metering department are listed below;
    The energy reading for the end of the month.
    Annual preventive maintenance of circuit breakers.
    Maintenance of circuit breakers.
    The design of a protection wiring scheme modification.
    Rearrangement of the wiring system of a circuit breaker.
    Installation and commissioning of a transformer.

    Series connected battery used for generating electricity
    Series connected battery used for generating electricity THE ENERGY READING FOR THE END OF THE MONTH

    The term Energy in the TCN is referred to the act of collecting energy or power to be transmitted from the Generating stations to the Distribution stations. Through this process arises the generation of money to be paid by the Distribution companies in respect to the amount of power received by them from the transmission station in turn the capital given is directed to the generation and transmission company for each month.
    Scope of the job
    The total energy generated by the generating station for a month has been accumulated in an electrical device called The energy meter. Then the energy meter is set to display the energy accumulated over a period of a month.
    The value given by the energy meter of the Generating station is then compared with that of the transmission station.
    Annual preventive maintenance is a schedule maintenance of power equipments like the circuit breaker, transformer, current transformer. The annual preventive maintenance is done so as to prevent any unforeseen faults that could possibly occur in the equipments.
    Scope of the job
    First, the equipment(circuit breaker) is cleaned and dusted with a broom to remove all sorts in the breaker and clean the SF6 gas indicator casing if dirty.
    The functionality and operational test is then carried out during this process, the circuit bis test run by opening and closing the breaker locally( manually) if it operates then it is tested on remote from the control room. MAINTENANCE OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    The maintenance or repairs of circuit breakers are corrective actions taking on a circuit breakers that developed faults over time.
    The following jobs are based on the maintenance of circuit breakers;
    The replacement of burnt closing coil in the circuit breaker.
    The failure of the hydraulic oil pump motor to actuate.
    The failure of a circuit breaker not to close. REPLACEMENT OF BURNT CLOSING COIL IN THE CIRCUIT BREAKER
    The closing coil or tripping coil energize the breaker by putting more pressure on the hydraulic oil pump motor to actuate the hydraulic oil for the closing operation of the circuit breaker.
    Scope of the job
    The circuit breaker C.B #3112 failed to close after investigation, it was discovered that the closing coil was burnt. Therefore, the closing coil was first measured to confirm it’s actually burnt in ohms(resistance), the result was above 30 ohms which means it is damaged, a good coil value must be less than 30 ohms.
    A newly reminded coil of 24.6 ohms was used to replace the burnt coil, it was inserted into its coil case . Ensure the push button on the case is free.
    Operate the circuit breaker locally and remotely to confirm its actuate the oil when closed and opened. FAILURE OF THE HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP MOTOR TO ACTUATE DUE TO DEFECTIVE MOTOR RELAY CONTACTOR
    The Hydraulic Oil Pump Motor: This is an electrical device that comes up or operates whenever the pressure in the circuit breaker is getting low, it operates so as to actuate or pressurize the circuit breaker hydraulic oil system to a pressure between 27MPa to 30MPa.
    The Motor Contactor: The motor relay Contactor is an electrical equithat picks up the D.C. current signal from the source and sends it to the hydraulic oil pump motor in order to actuate the hydraulic oil system.
    An Over-load Relay y Contactor: It is an electrical equipment that serves as protection for the motor contactors in case of a power surge or high current.
    Scope of the Job
    During the annual preventive maintenance of the circuit breaker #3223, when the functional test was carried out , it eas discoveredthat the hydraulic oil pump motor failed to come up, after investigation it was discovered that the motor contactor was defective.
    The motor contactors and over-load relay contactor was replaced to a better one and operated which the circuit breaker then became ready for service. THE FAILURE OF A CIRCUIT BREAKER TO CLOSE
    All the faults that occurs in a circuit breaker causes it not to close, the fault encountered or discovered in the circuit breaker was that, the circuit breaker failed to close due to excess SF6 gas in the circuit breaker, this was caused by expansion of the gas due to increase in temperature of the atmosphere.
    Scope of the Job
    The SF6 gas was maintained (reduced) to its normal gauge of between 27MPa to 30MPa, in this case 28MPa. THE DESIGN OF A PROTECTION WIRING SCHEME MODIFICATION
    In the OTA 132/33kV transmission station, the OTA/OGBA 132kV line tripped on no relay indication. Therefore, a protection wiring scheme modification is done on the relay.
    A protection wiring scheme modification can be referred to as the act of designing a new modified wiring for the protection of a relay. The protection wiring scheme modification is designed so as to meet the need of the fault a ground.
    Scope of the Job
    The fault in the relay panel is that the relay tripped without no indication, that is, the tripping or trip signal did not come from the Optimal distance relay or the Backup Siemens O/C + E/F relay.
    Therefore, a protection wiring scheme diagram is designed to discriminate the trip signal between the Optimal distance relay and the backup Siemens O/C + E/F. That is whenever the relay trips on either each way it trips , the trip signal would be help down to know or indicate the type of tripping.
    The connection is then carried out in the relay panel according to the protection wiring scheme diagram.
    In the OTA Transmission station, it was discovered that the newly installed circuit breaker wiring connections are not in comparison with manufacturer’s circuit diagram.
    Scope of the Job
    The circuit breaker manufacturer’s circuit diagram is used to know how the circuit breaker should be connected.
    The number tags and their functions are compared in the circuit breaker and circuit diagram to be traced out if they are not the same, they are to be corrected.
    After all the tracing and corrections, the circuit breaker is operating both locally and remotely.

    The Circuit diagram used during the rewiring of the circuit breaker INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONG OF A TRANSFORMER
    Before the installation and commissioning of a transformer, the following maintenance tests and services are carried out on the transformer and they are as follows;
    Calibration and tests of the the 3.3kV indoor bus bars and associated components
    Calibration and tests of incomer 3.3kV breaker, transformer primary and secondary breaker.
    Calibration and tests of transformer primary and secondary current transformer (CTs)
    Calibration and tests of the transformer relays.
    Checks and tests of underground cables associated with transformer secondary side.
    Checks, wiring and tests on transformer protective device systems.
    Site confirmatory tests on the transformer after repairs.
    Maintenance of transformer primary and secondary panels.
    The checks and tests of the substation earthing system.
    The irregular voltage of 3.3 kV occurs in the indoor circuit breaker of the incoming transformer panel because it was built by the Chinese, therefore, the indoor circuit breaker contains all its necessary protection.
    Scope of the Job
    The Calibration and Tests of the 3.3kV Indoor Bus-Bars, the Incomer 3.3kV Breaker, Transformer Primary and Secondary Breaker and Associated Components:
    Under this maintenance, the insulation test of the 3.3kV indoor bus bars are done, it is done so as to know the rate of preventing the leakage current (I.e energy loss) using a high voltage Megger of a constant voltage of 5000V which measures in megaohms. The reason behind this test is to know the insulation value of each bus bar phase, a good insulation value ranges from 180000 to 200000(infinity) megaohms.
    The higher the resistance value gotten from each phase, the better the chances of preventing leakage current.
    The Calibration and Tests of the Transformer Primary and Secondary Current Transformer (CT):
    The importance of the test on the primary current transformer is done so as to confirm the functionality of the current transformer. It is done with the aid of a Primary Current Injection Test Set called Megger, in this way, a current of 200A is injected into the primary, a current not less than 2.5A would be in the Secondary.
    The Secondary Current Transformer is also tested by the aid of a Secondary Current Injection Test Set called Hypotonic. It is used to set the minimum current at which the indoor circuit breaker relay trips, which was set t to trip at a current of 3.3A, it helps improve the relay protection of the indoor circuit breaker.
    The Calibration, Checks and Tests of the Transformer Relays abd the Underground Cables Associated with the Transformer Secondary Side:
    The calibration and tests of the transformer relay is done by checking the resistance level of the transformer phase with the aid of a Megger. The checks done on the Underground cables is done to confirm the Underground cables are not damaged on the outside and a continuity test is also done on the cable by the aid of a digital meter.
    Checks, Wiring and Tests on the Transformer Protective Device Systems:
    Under this procedure, checks are done on the control cable if it is intact, the checks include the oil temperature alarm, the pressure relief trip, and so on.
    The tests done includes the functionality test of the protection devices of the transformer which includes the Buchholz relay, Earth fault relay, Over-current relay, Differential relay and digital relay by actuating it to be in sequence o alarm by putting in a positive to make it trip for confirming if it is working properly. They include; The magnetization test, Core balance test, Ratio test, short circuit test and insulation resistance test.
    Maintenance of Transformer Primary and Secondary Panels, Checks and Tests of the Substation Earthing System and the Site Confirmatory Tests on the Transformer after Repairs:
    The maintenance of the transformer primary and secondary panel involves checking of the transformer primary and secondary panel in order to remove any form of moisture for preventing Earth fault in terms of voltage transfer in the transformer through induction to avoid earth fault(E/F) trip.

    3.4.2. Experience Gained
    Under my stay in the PC&M department during their work apart from the carrying out of a annual preventive maintenance of a circuit breaker, they work with the manufacturer wiring diagram of the equipment to be worked on. Therefore, I gained the following;
    I learnt how to take energy readings from a meter.
    In the maintenance(repair) of a circuit breaker, if the circuit breaker fails to close, I learnt that it is important to check and investigate the fault in the circuit breaker before beginning the job.
    The System Operations also known as the Independent System Operators(ISO) department. At the end of my schedule with the Protection, Control and Metering department, I resumed at the system operations department(ISO) where I spent three weeks (9th to 28th of March , 2020). This department is led by the principal manager named ENGR. K. Muyiwa as the HOD. This department is responsible for the monitoring of the electrical transmission line, grid and the switch yard including the faults in the control room or with the relay panels.
    The functions of an operator in the control room involves the following:
    The monitoring of the proper operation of the station equipments in the control room and in the switch yard.
    The quick response to system disturbance. In the sense of fluctuations of the loads on the grid which in turn leads to the fluctuation of voltage, current and frequency in the grid.
    The load management of the electricity system grid: Load management can be referred to as the means or way of keeping the electricity system grid in equilibrium, whereby the power distribution across the national grid results to the power demanded. In other words, it is the balancing of the power on the grid with the load on the grid to be at equilibrium.
    The collection of data from various substations under the Area Control Center i.e. the ACC. This data include the voltage transmitted by the station at every hour interval.
    The recording of events that is being carried in and out of the station. I.e the station situation report and the filling of the daily logbook.
    The carrying out of switching operations and to ensure safety of personnel and system equipments.
    To make sure that the power transmitted from the Generating company to the grid at a minimum load loss.
    Under the system operations department, the work done there are on a daily basis which includes;
    Filling of the hourly load reading sheet at an interval of an hour(0000HRS, 0100HRS, 0200HRS, 0300HRS, …).
    Taking of the periodic energy readings at an interval of 6 hours daily (0000HRS, 0600HRS, 1200HRS and 1800HRS).
    Updating of the transmitted voltage data collected from various substations under the Olorunsogo Area Control Center, ACC into the Regional Control Center, RCC which is the Ikeja West Transmission Station for safe keeping of the data soft copy.
    The Transmission Station situation report has to be filled everyday for the previous day i.e the station report for Tuesday is going to submitted on Wednesday.
    All the work mentioned above are daily activities;
    The issuing of operating form.
    The experiences gathered during the attachment in this department are as follows:
    Routine inspection and daily checks: this involves a walk around the switchyard by the operator, inspecting and checking the working conditions of the equipment, ensuring the pressure in the gas circuit breakers are normal, taking readings of the temperature of the windings of the transformers in the station, the checking of 110 and checking the electrolyte level in the batteries (for batteries that use electrolyte) so it does nothing get below the minimum, also inspecting the terminals for corrosion.
    Taking hourly readings from the SCADA system form all the outgoing terminal feeders and the periodic energy readings at six hours interval.
    Receiving and passing reports: reports including tripping and transformer and feeder load flow are received from substations within the area control; reports of the station activities are also passed to the Regional Control Centre (RCC).
    Filling of the station situation report.
    How to apply for, and issue station guarantee for several purposes. Also learnt how to isolate and de-energize a line, also to lift isolation and energize.
    How to apply for an outage request.
    In the department of the system operations, the following equipments or tools and materials are listed below:
    Frequency monitor
    Relay panels
    The 110V DC battery bank
    A desktop system
    The Log book
    Operating forms
    Energy meter
    Hourly reading sheets, and
    The SCADA
    FREQUENCY MONITOR: The frequency monitor is used to know the frequency of the electricity national grid. The frequency is said to be uniform across the national grid all over the Transmission Station in the country. The frequency on the national grid is highly load dependent, therefore it fluctuates based on the load generated and demanded, that is, if the power generated is lower than the power demanded, then the frequency is going to be low and if the power generated is higher than the power demanded, then the frequency would be high.
    The normal range of values for frequency is between 50.1 Hz to 50.5 Hz. Therefore, anything lower than 50.1 Hz means the energy generated is low and if it continues to drop, then the NCC would be informed and they would direct some station to drop load from their feeders. This process is known as load shedding (load shedding is the deliberate removal of loads from a feeder so as to either boost the frequency rationing or as well as the transformer capacity). If the frequency tends to rise above 50.6Hz means the energy generated is higher than the energy demanded, then the NCC is also informed which would call for load picking. In other words, all these processes are known as load management.

    Relay panels: Relay panels are constructed housing for the relays which helps to facilitate the easier and faster detection of faults as they are sensitive to any fluctuation on the grid so as to give the alarm once a fault or fluctuation is detected.

    The 110V direct current (DC) battery bank: The 110V DC battery bank is termed generally as the life of any transmission station at the operations department. This because it is responsible for the powering kf all the relays and control panels equipments used for monitoring the grid. It aids in relay co-ordination, relay co-ordination is the activity of a relay to detect faults and cut off that fault only with the help of the battery bank, because it is the battery bank that provides the electrical power to send signals to the circuit breaker in order to trip while cutting the fault off.

    Desktop computer: The computer is one of the tools or equipments used by the operators. It is used to upload the load data collected from other substations, to be filled into the RCC platform. It is used for the safe keeping of the station situation report soft copy, the processing and issuing of outage request form etc.

    Log book: The log book can be referred to as a material used for the recording of the daily activities in the office, it is more of a material used for documenting the summary of all occurrence including the time they occurred for safe keeping of the hard copy after all important details and data had been logged into the system.
    The operating forms: The operating forms are important forms conveying details on the type of equipment to be worked on, the name of the leader of the maintenance crew to work on the equipment, the name of the operator on duty as at the time the job is to commence and the time the job starts and is expected to end. These operating forms are to be filled by the operator on duty and the permit holder that is the leader of the maintenance crew, when a job is to proceed at the station. There are seven(7) types of operating forms, namely; Operating form(O.F) 1, O.F 2, O.F 3, O.F. 4, O.F 11, O.F 19 and Hold-off tags.
    Operating Form1: The operating form 1 stands for the application for protection which is filled by the Transmission Service Provider, TSP, before commencing any job.
    Operating Form 2: This is known as the Work permit, it is filled by the operator on duty and the permit holder. This type of form is given when the job involved does not require any testing for functionality.
    Operating Form 3: It serves as a Station Guarantee. A Station Guarantee form is a type of form given by the Transmission Company of Nigeria to either the Generating company or the Distribution company by the operator on duty so as to assure the safety of an equipment from the Transmission end before working on the equipment at there end.
    Operating Form 4: This is the Work and Test permit, it is similar to the work permit, but the only difference is that this permit gives room for the testing of the electrical equipment.
    Operating Form 11: It is known as the self protection form. The difference
    between the O.F 11 an other Operating Forms is that the equipment involved with O.F 11 are low voltage equipments which does not require any necessary isolation by the operator. Examples of this kind of jobs are that of maintenance of battery banks and illumination of the switch yard.
    Operating Form 19: This is the Trouble Report. The Trouble Report is being filed by the operators and submitted via emails to the TSP whenever they notice any fault on any equipments that needs attention or repairs.
    Hold-off Tags: This is a kind of special permit used by the TSP crew when working on the Transmission line that ensures guarantee on jobs that does not require an outage on that line, but if the line should trip, then the operator must communicate with the maintenance crew to confirm if it was their action that lead to the tripping.

    Energy Meter
    : The energy meter is a digital electronic equipment that store and measure the energy that is being transmitted by the transformer it is being connected to for over a long period of time. It is used to record the periodic energy readings at the interval of 6 hours daily.

    The Hourly Reading Sheet: This is also a material used by the operator daily. It is used to take Hourly load read reading which contains the power(MW), Current(Amps), Voltage(kV), the Loads (MW) on the grid and (MVAR) at hourly basis, with the aid of the SCADA system.

    The SCADA: SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition. It's function is to Supervise, Control and Acquiring Data.
    Hourly checking the reading of meter.

    The SCADA: SCADA is an acronym for Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition. It’s function is to Supervise, Control and Acquiring Data.
    A SCADA system includes the following:
    One or more computers connected to each other, perform the Supervisory functions and implement human-machine interface (HMI).
    A communication network with a variety of transmission media and communication protocols, able to ensure the correct exchange of data between peripheral devices and Supervisory computers.
    A SCADA software is an integrated development environment, which provides all the tools necessary to create SCADA applications, designed to run on Supervisory computers and perform the functions that are typical of a SCADA system; Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition.
    The Supervisory functions of a SCADA allow s the operator to have an immediate view of the process status and to control how the process evolves over time by analyzing the sequence operating states. The main task of the supervision is to realize the human-machine interface HMI to be effective.
    The Control function of a SCADA system consists in the ability of the control system to interact with the controlled process, in order to modify its evolution according to pre-establish rules or decisions taken by the operator.
    Data Acquisition is the main functions among those performed by SCADA system. The data acquisition not only means transfer of information from peripherals devices to Supervisory computers, but also transfer of information in the opposite direction, in order to allow the supervisory system to get all the information on the process status that are necessary to allow the observation. It’s task is to ensure the error-free transfer of information between process and supervision.


    This chapter entails the equipment used, the functions of the equipment used and the descriptions of their usage during the cause of this attachment at Transmission Company of Nigeria, Ganmo.
    The equipment used is as follow;
    Wave traps
    Instrument transformers
    The circuit breakers
    The insulation resistance tester (Megga)
    The leakage current tester (Clamp on)
    Earthing transformer
    Bus isolators and Isolators
    Relays and control panels
    The Secondary current injection test set.


    A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. Auto-transformer is a single-winding transformer with taps. With primary voltage applied to the primary terminals, the required secondary voltage from zero volts to the rated primary volts can be availed from the secondary by varying the taps.
    Auto-transformer is a power transformer that has incorporated into it a higher level of control techniques and is mostly used in transmission station. An autotransformer is used mainly for the adjustment of line voltages to either change its value or keep it constant.
    It functions as step down transformer and it keeps the output voltage i.e. secondary voltage constant by the use of tap-changer feature of the auto-transformer.
    It is a power transformer used in electrical power stations
    The usage of autotransformer in Transmission Company of Nigeria is to step up or step down the HVAC to a certain values and maintain a constant output voltage i.e. secondary voltage by tap-changing the winding inside the transformer using the Tap-Changer built with the transformer for the ability to change the position of the secondary winding to maintain a constant output secondary voltages.
    Auto-transformers are frequently used in power applications to interconnect systems operating at different voltage classes, for example 330kV to 132kV for transmission.
    On long rural power distribution lines, special autotransformers with automatic tap-changing equipment are inserted as voltage regulators, so that customers at the far end of the line receive the same average voltage as those closer to the source. The variable ratio of the autotransformer compensates for the voltage drop along the line.



    Wave trap is an electrical equipment used on the outgoing or incoming line into a Station, as its name indicates that it is used to trap frequency waves.
    The carrier energy on the transmission line must be directed toward the remote line terminal and not toward the station bus and it must be isolated from bus impedance variations. This task is performed by the line trap.
    A parallel resonant circuit has high impedance at its tuned frequency, and it then causes most of the carrier energy to flow toward the remote line terminal. The coil of the line trap provides a low impedance path for the flow of the power frequency energy. Since, the power flow is rather large at times, the coil used in a line trap must be large in terms of the size. Hence, a line trap unit/Wave trap is inserted between bus bar and connection of coupling capacitor to the line. It is a parallel tuned circuit comprising of inductance (L) and capacitance (C). It has low impedance (less than 0.1Ω) for power frequency (50 Hz) and high impedance to carrier frequency. This unit prevents the high frequency carrier signal from entering the neighbouring line.



    Instrument transformers are primary used to provide isolation between the main primary circuit and the secondary control and measuring devices. This isolation is achieved by magnetically coupling the two circuits. In addition to isolation, levels in magnitude are reduced to safer levels.
    Instrument transformer are divided into two categories;
    (i) Voltage Transformers (VT), VTs have a successor called Capacitor Voltage Transformers (CVT), and (ii) Current Transformer (CT).
    The primary winding of VT is connected in parallel with monitoring circuit, while the primary winding of the CT is connected in series with monitoring circuit.

    1. To transform currents or voltages from a usually high value to easy to handle for relays and instruments.
    2. To insulate the metering circuit from the primary high voltage system.
    3. To provide possibilities of standardizing the instruments and relays to a few rated currents and voltages
      1. The secondary windings proportionally transform the primary levels to typical values of 110V phase to phase.
      2. The secondary voltage can be used in switchgear compartments, where it may be used to drive motors that open and close circuit breakers.
      3. The secondary voltage can be used in voltage regulators, where it can power a tap-changing drive motor of the Power Autotransformer above.
      4. It used for protections of both the equipment in the station and personnel.
      5. The secondary voltage is used for metering and operating protection relays such as Over Voltage protection, Under Voltage protection, Over frequency protection, Under frequency protection, Distance Protection, Transformer Differential protection et cetera.
      6. The CVT is also useful in communication systems. CTVs in combination with wave traps are used for filtering high-frequency communication signals from power frequency. This forms a carrier communication network throughout the transmission network.

    CT at Olorunsogo 330kV. VT at Papalanto 132kV T.S. The Line CT at OTA T.S.

    A current transformer can be used in:
    To transforms the current on the line to that which is suitable for the meters and relays to function.
    Metering of power to track energy use.
    Monitoring of current flow through a circuit. This can be used to monitor the amount of current drawing by are line and the maximum allow current can be set on relay to trip on over current protection.
    Relay of power through an energy grid.
    Control of the state of circuit (open or closed) in a ground fault circuit interrupter.
    Protection of instruments and appliances connected to AC power supplies as well the personnel working at TCN.
    Electrical circuit breaker is a switching device which can be operated manually as well as automatically for controlling and protection of electrical power system respectively. As the modern power system deals with huge currents, the special attention should be given during designing of circuit breaker to safe interruption of arc produced during the operation of circuit breaker.
    There are four type of circuit breaker namely; Air Circuit Breaker (ACB), Oil Circuit Breaker(OCB), SF6 Circuit Breaker and Vacuum Circuit Breaker. They types that is employed at TCN Papalanto, and its substations are Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) and Spring Charging Circuit Breaker by operating mechanism.
    The main functions of circuit breakers are;
    Sense the current flowing in the circuit
    Measure the current flowing in the circuit
    Compare the measured current level to its pre-set trip point
    Act within a predetermined time period by opening the circuit as quickly as possible to limit the amount of energy that is allowed to flow after the trip point has been reached.
    This equipment is used to make or break a circuit or segment of it, for the purpose of preventing Electrical Energy from getting to certain segments of the transmission and/or station. The circuit breaker can operate under normal (when it is operated deliberately) and abnormal conditions (when its contacts open on discovery of a fault within its jurisdiction). Its contacts are embedded in a medium which function as insulation and arc quenching during operation. Its contacts are not visible to the human eyes; however it could have an indicator telling whether the circuit breaker is opened or closed. The medium could be air, oil, gas (Sulphur hexafluoride SF6 gas is widely used), vacuum (absence of oxygen eliminates combustion). The advantages of Gas Circuit Breakers (GCB) over the Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) are as follows;
    Oil is combustible and could cause fire outbreak if arcing current is very high.
    Carbonization of the oil takes place when the contacts are made or broken due to arcing.
    When the contacts are made or broken, the oil gradually reduces in insulation strength and may result in breakdown, or must be changed regularly.
    The gases used in the GCB are usually more efficient than using the OCB.
    The GCB provides neater working environment around the breaker than the OCB.


    Insulation resistance quality of an electrical system degrades with time, environment condition i.e. temperature, humidity, moisture & dust particles. It also get impacted negatively due to the presence of electrical & mechanical stress, so its become very necessary to check the IR (Insulation resistance) of equipment at a constant regular interval to avoid any measure fatal or electrical shock.
    A Megohmmeter usually is equipped with three terminals. The “LINE” (or “L”) terminal is the so-called “hot” terminal and is connected to the conductor whose insulation resistance you are measuring. The tests are performed with the circuit de-energized.
    The “EARTH” (or “E”) terminal is connected to the other side of the insulation, the ground conductor.
    The “GUARD” (or “G”) terminal provides a return circuit that bypasses the meter. For example, if you are measuring a circuit having a current that you do not want to include, you connect that part of the circuit to the “GUARD” terminal.


    In any electrical installation, some current will flow through the protective ground conductor to ground. This is usually called leakage current. Leakage current most commonly flows in the insulation surrounding conductors and in the filters protecting electronic equipment around the he or office. So what’s the problem? On circuits protected by GFCIs (Ground Fault Current Interrupters) e.g. Circuit Breaker, leakage current can cause unnecessary and intermittent tripping. In extreme cases, it can cause a rise in voltage on accessible conductive parts.
    The Clamp-on is use in TCN to detect leakage current in secondary terminal of a CT while performing maintenance and detecting the start of the windings and insulation of the CT. The Clamp-on is clamp on the shorted secondary terminals of the CT while a known current has been injected to the primary side of the CT to test.

    The general purpose of earthing system is to protect life and property in the event of 50/60 Hz faults (short-circuit) and transient phenomena (lightning, switching operations).

    A three phase Delta connected transformer
    A three phase Delta connected transformer

    This is used as earthing for the auto transformer and likewise as auxiliary supply for station. The earthing transformer serves as the neutral for the secondary of the transformer as step down of the 33KV at the tertiary to 415V, which is used for station auxiliary supply.
    For cases where there is no neutral point available for Neutral Earthing (e.g. for a delta windings), an earthing transformer may be used to provide a return path for single phase faults currents.
    In such cases the impedance of the earthing transformer may be sufficient to act as effective Earth impedance. Additional impedance can be added in series if required. A special ‘zig-zag’ transformer is sometimes used for earthing delta windings to provide a low zero-sequence impedance and high positive and negative sequence impedance to fault currents.
    In a three phase delta connected AC system, an artificial neutral grounding system may be used. Although no phase conductor is directly connected to ground, a specially constructed transformer (a “zigzag” transformer) blocks the power frequency current from flowing to Earth, but allows any leakage or transient current to flow to ground.

    Isolators are a mechanical switching device used to disconnect some portion of the circuit. It is basically operated when the load is already cut off. Like circuit breaker, Isolator is also used in making and breaking the circuit, but there is major difference that is, Circuit Breaker is on Load device and isolator is operated when the load is off or disconnected

      132kV ISOLATOR.           THE 330kV BUS ISOLATOR.    THE 330kV LINE ISOLATOR

    i. Isolators are used to open a circuit under no load.
    ii. It is a manually operated mechanical switch which separates a part of the electrical power.
    iii. Isolators are generally used on both ends of the breaker in order that repair or replacement of circuit breaker can be done without and danger.
    iv. Isolators connected on any line or circuit can be electrically or manually operated for either emergency or maintenance.

    Relay is an automatic protective device designed to trip a circuit breaker when a fault is detected. The protective relays were electromagnetic devices, relying on coils operating on moving parts to provide detection of abnormal operating conditions such as over-current, over-voltage, reverse power flow, over-frequency, and under-frequency.
    Some Relays used in Sub-Station
    i. Over Current Relay
    ii. Over Voltage Relay
    iii. Differential Relay
    iv. Restricted Earth Fault Relay
    v. Buchholz Relay.

    Relay equipment

    It protects the transmission station against the following:
    I. Itprotects against over current. The relays trip when a current rises above a set point which can be caused by either the load or the supply such as a sudden increase in load due to faulty.
    ii. It function as a protective device when there is an over voltage. That is, relays trip when a voltage rises above a set point.
    iii. It provides protection against earth fault. That is, relays detect any undesired current path from a point of differing potential to ground.
    It is a method of connecting a secondary injection test set to a trip unit (trip device, over current module, protection device, OCR, ETU etc.) on a circuit breaker, VT and CT, and injecting a simulated current to prove it works at different levels.

    A secondary injector
    A secondary injector

    Secondary current Injection
    I. Primary and secondary current injection tests are normally conducted to check the operation of breaker and their protective relays/devices.
    ii. The protective devices installed vary from circuit to circuit depending on the protection needs but typical relays/devices include overload, over current, reverse power, earth fault, and differential protection.


    Transmission Company of Nigeria, Papalanto has given me the opportunity to have an experience in general, considering my level of involvement in some technical work and being able to witness the various application of the theoretical aspect of education which I am conversant with.

    The problems of securing a place of attachment as some of the organizations dont want to accept SIWES students.
    Finance department of the company did not make proper provision to pay SIWES student nor do draft any allowance, packages so as to relief the expenses for themonths programme.
    Difficulty to understand some technical explanations as limited time is met for work done.
    The biggest problem faced so far is getting to the office caused by traffic, money available at hand.
    Based on the experience and knowledge acquired at the course of the SIWES training, I hereby give the following recommendation base on my observations;
    Institution should ensure that students are attached at relevant establishment for effective training, experience and exposure.
    I recommend that substantial percent of the National budget should go into the development, improvement and sustenance of the power sector. Doing this would help improve Electricity production and in turn improve development and industrialization and subsequently, the income the country generates.
    Also, Power Holding Company of Nigeria should put safety into great consideration; providing adequate safety wears for staff and ensuring their usage; putting that in mind.
    I strongly suggest that SIWES student should be paid at monthly basis so as to ease the burden of transportation being the main problem faced.


    Getting started in college can be a stressful time, even for students with limited obligations outside of the classroom. Today, many college students are also balancing the important demands of jobs, family obligations and other responsibilities as they pursue higher education.

    Whether you are a student or your kid is about to go to college, there are common mistakes that undergraduate students make during their stay at the University. You should try your very best to avoid these errors.

      Many University students in their first year live as if they were the first persons to get admitted. Immediately they see their names in the admission list, they feel that is all.
      They do not ask questions about the school, their department or course of study. They also fail to realize that it is what they have in their head that takes them ahead in school.
      University is not called UNI-STRESS for nothing. Many University students are facing challenges in 200L as a result of what they didn’t know in 100L. For you not to experience the challenges your senior students are facing, you must know what they didn’t know. You need to be properly guided on:
      °Resumption date
      °Clearance date
      °The required documents
      °Updates on course registration
      °Uniuyo school Fees payment deadline
      °How Uniabuja students should Jark
      °How exam questions are set
      °The university marking scheme
      °Tips to avoid missing scripts or Absent cases
      °Understanding Uni-stress.
      I can tell you that distraction is one of the main things advertised in University . The distractions come in different dimensions. This makes it more difficult to identify. In University distractions come in form of:
      °Social activities
      °Pretty girls and handsome boys
      °Parasitic relationship
      °Campus fellowship.
      °Prioritize your time so as to accomplish the tasks that produce the best result for your academics. You cannot stop distractions from coming your way. However, you can choose not to be distracted.
      This mistake is not peculiar to University students. As a year one student, you want to make friends and associate with everyone you come across.
      You want to attend all the shows to show that you have arrived. Have you forgotten that who you follow determines what follows you? it does.
      University is a federal University and as a result, admits students from different tribes and background. This is a good reason why you should be selective in your choice of friends.
      Many students are still regretting
      Who class help? this is the language of some University students. Most students are mostly guilty of this. The truth is that, classes may not help you in 100L.
      However, if you cultivate this habit in 100L, it will be very difficult for you to leave. This will in-turn harm you in the second year of study. If classes aren’t helping you, then what is helping you in school?
      University calendar is currently moving at the speed of sound. If you don’t prepare with the speed of light, the exam date will come as a flash to you.
      Many University sudents in their first year shake hands with procrastination, forgetting the fact that it has crippled their senior colleagues.
      University exams usually come as surprise to those who are not prepared; they are no jokes. Start preparing as early as possible.
      This is very common with Law students. They iron clothes for five hours daily and move round to impress the opposite sex.
      You are in school to study and develop yourself, not for a beauty show. Don’t carry shinning body with an empty brain. Invest in your personality.
      Hundred level University students are fond of going to night classes in group. They spend more time discussing and less time studying. This impacts their academic performance negatively. Do not follow the crowd to night class. Make every second of your stay in night class count.
      Many hundred level University students feel they know it all. They feel too proud to ask questions. What you do not know is senior to you.
      Humble yourself and learn. In fact, if you are too proud, you become too heavy for people to carry along. Keep calm and learn soft work.
      Many University students do not take GST courses serious. For some, it is very easy so they can read it a day to the exam. For others, they hate GST with passion.
      The belief that general studies courses do not add to CGPA has been thoroughly debunked. The fact remains that GST adds to your GPA and should be taken very seriously. The rate at which 100L University students fail GST courses has assumed a gargantuan proportion.
      In conclusion, you can’t graduate from University without passing all your General studies courses. The earlier you understand this, the better for you.
      University hundred level students find it difficult to say no. They feel, “If I refuse to go out with him, what will he say”. Do not let the fear of what people would say make you swim in the ocean of indecision.
      Know what you like and what you do not like. Also, know what works best for you. Be yourself.
      Dm me for more information about education

    Best Ways To Form Notes During Lectures

    1. Don’t Put Down Everything:
      Effective jotting doesn’t require you to put down everything the teacher or lecturer says. Write down only the important points .
      Don’t fight to make your jotter perfect. It’s just a rough note that aids you in remembering what was taught in class.
      Put down only the vital information and then go back to your hostel to form a comprehensive note. Remember, the shortest pen is better than the longest memory.
    2. Note The Areas Of Emphasis:
      When the lecturer or teacher says, “take note of this’ it is required of you to quickly write it in your rough note and mark it as important. Ensure to research more on that area of concentration without further procrastinations.
      Most times, the teacher tells you likely
      examination topic or questions. Don’t joke with them.
      Also, take note of the part you are told not to focus on. This will make reading easier for you. Besides, nobody what to read what is not relevant to the issue. Your smartness matters a whole lot.
    3. Know When To Write:
      To avoid distraction, know when to write and when not to write. Always pause to listen; there are some points that automatically sticks to your brain.
      Do not write while the lecturer is still talking or making important emphasis . Wait for him to pause, crack jokes or ask questions before you jot down the relevant points.
      With this, you will be able to focus on what the lecturer is teaching, and still form a good note without any form of distractions.
    4. Use Abbreviations:
      For a faster jotting, you don’t need to write everything in full. Besides, nobody will mark the rough notes you formed in class. Use as many abbreviations and shorthand as you can remember.
    5. Be Very Fast:
      The faster you are at taking notes, the better for you. You don’t have to spend all the whole day forming note. Write as fast as possible and listen as attentive as possible. Also, do not jot down what you already know.
  • When is jamb registration starting for 2023 students

    2023 UTME Registration To Start January 14 – JAMB

    The Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) has approved the commencement of the registration for the 2023 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) from Saturday, 14th January to Tuesday, 14th February 2023.
    This, however, does not include registration for Direct Entry (DE) applications as the DE registration would commence from Monday, February 20 to Thursday, April 20, 2022.
    The Board also fixed Thursday, March 16, 2023, for the conduct of its optional mock-UTME.
    Also, the Board, after considering its other commitments, fixed Saturday, April 29, 2023, for the conduct of the 2023 UTME, which is expected to end on Monday, May 12, 2023.
    The Board advised all candidates, who desire to register for the 2023 UTME to immediately embark on the creation of their respective profiles (creation of profile code) ahead of the formal commencement of the registration exercise to avoid being caught up in any ensuing bottleneck.

    JAMB update 2023.

    • NIN is compulsory.
    • Phone number is compulsory.
    • You can repeat phone number(not used previously by another person to register JAMB) but advised to use a new one.
    • Make sure the date of birth on your NIN slip is valid, no correction of date of birth after registration.
    • Ensure to only use your personal phone number not from a stranger.
    • Registration is only done at CBT centre.
    • You can get pin from Banks, I will also sell the pins.
    • Make sure you know your subjects combination for your prefer courses.


    JAMB Subject Combinations for Sciences:

    Medicine and Surgery, Nursing Science, Pharmacy, Medical Laboratory science, Radiography, physiotherapy: Use of English, Biology, Physics and Chemistry.

    Agricultural Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Computer Science: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and one of Biology, Chemistry, Agric Science, Economics and Geography.

    Biochemistry: Use of English, Biology, Physics and Chemistry.

    Physics: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry or Biology.

    Mathematics: Use of English, Mathematics and any two of Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Biology and Agricultural Science.

    Chemistry: Use of English, Chemistry and two of Physics, Biology and Mathematics.

    Food, Science and Technology: Use of English, Chemistry, Mathematics / Physics and Agricultural Science.
    Pharmacy: Use of English, Biology, Physics and Chemistry.

    Fisheries: Use of English, Chemistry, Biology/ Agricultural Science and any other Science subject.

    Geography: Use of English, Geography and any two of Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Agricultural Science.

    Surveying an Geoinformatics: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.

    Statistics: Use of English, Mathematics and any two of Physics, chemistry, agricultural science and economics.

    Building: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.
    Microbiology: Use of English, Biology, Chemistry and either Physics or Mathematics.

    Botany: Use of English, Biology, Chemistry and any other Science subject.

    Zoology: Use of English, Biology and any two of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.

    Agricultural Economics: English Language, Chemistry, Biology/ Agricultural Science and Mathematics.
    sh, Chemistry, Biology/Agric Science and Physics/Mathematics.

    Soil Science: English, Chemistry, Biology or Agricultural Science plus Mathematics or Physics.

    Forestry: Use of English, Chemistry, Biology or Agriculture and Physics or Mathematics.

    Civil Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Chemical Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Computer Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Electrical Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Electronic Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.
    Mechanical Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Petroleum and Engineering: Use of English, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.

    Architecture: English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.

    Quantity Surveying: Use of English, Physics, Mathematics, and any of Chemistry, Geography, Art, Biology and Economics.
    Urban and Regional Planning: English, Mathematics, Geography and one of Economics, Physics, Chemistry.

    Estate Management: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics and one other subject.
    Anatomy: English, Mathematics, Biology and Chemistry or Physics.

    JAMB Subject Combinations for Social Sciences:

    Accountancy: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics and any other Social Science subject.

    Business Administration: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics and any other Social Science subject.

    Banking and Finance: Use of English, Mathematics, one Social Science subject and any other subject.

    Economics: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics and any of Government, History, Geography, Literature in English, French and CRK/IRK.

    Library Science: Use of English and Any three Arts or Social Science subjects.

    Sociology: Use of English, Three Social Science or Arts subjects.

    Political Science/ Pubic admin: Use of English, Government or History plus two other Social Science/ Arts subjects.

    Philosophy: Use of English, Government and any other two subjects.

    Psychology: Use of English, Any three subjects from Arts or Social Science.

    Religious Studies: Use of English Language, CRK/IRS and any two other subjects.

    Business Management: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics and one other subject.

    Marketing: Use of English, Mathematics, Economics plus one other relevant Subject.

    Insurance: English, Mathematics, Economics and one other subject.

    JAMB Subject Combinations for Arts:

    Fine and Applied Arts: Use of English Language, Fine Art and two other Arts subjects or Social Science subject.

    Theatre Arts: Use of English, Lit. in English and two other relevant subjects.

    Linguistics: English, Two relevant Arts subjects and any other subject.

    French: English, French and any other two subjects from Arts and Social Sciences.

    English Language: Use of English, Lit.-in-English, one other Arts subject and another Arts or Social Science subject.

    Communicaton Arts: Use of English, Any three Arts and Social Science subjects.

    Music: Use of English, Music, one other Arts subject plus any other subject.

    Philosophy: Use of English, Any three subjects.
    Religious Studies: English, CRK/IRS and any two other subjects.

    Law: English, Literature, Economics/CRK, Government

  • Have university of Abuja started 2022 Post UTME registration


    UniAbuja Post UTME screening for the 2022/23 academic session is to commence next week Wednesday, December 28th and end Wednesday, January 25th (about a month).

    The decision to start the exercise early came because of the 2023 Jamb examination.

    Note that this call is for those who wrote Jamb examination this year.

    Contact for registration requirements. Also, for your hitch-free, fast and reliable


    1. Jamb Original Result
    2. O’level Results
    3. Birth Certificate/Declaration of Age
    4. Certificate of Origin
    5. Passport Photograph (either white or red background)
    6. A valid email address and phone number
    7. A valid O’level result scratch card.
    8. Signature and Home Address
    9. Other personal information
    10. A’Level/JUPEB/IJMB/OND/NCE/HND and others (Direct Entry Only)

    NOTE: All this above documents should be in colored form/printing

    Requirements For the screening

    1. Candidate must have relevant O’ level result(s) at NOT MORE THAN TWO SITTINGS, and score a minimum of 180 in 2022 Post UTME
    2. Must have made the university of Abuja as their first choice or change from other institutions to the university of Abuja.
    3. Candidate for Direct Entry (DE) Admission will be required to upload both their O’ level result and Higher qualifications, accordingly, to the University portal and register for the screening exercise.

    Procedure for the 2022/2023 pre-admission screening

    1. Visit https://portal.uniabuja.edu.ng and click on “click here to apply”;
    2. Click undergraduate link on the left panel;
    3. Enter your JAMB Registration Number and click on ” Get details”;
    4. Complete the basic information page ( Please Note: enter only valid phone number and email address and click next);
    5. Candidate are required to pay the sum of Two Thousand naira (2,000) only for the screening;
    6. On the payment review page click on “Generate RRR” and this take you to another page;
    7. Click on “Submit” and you will be redirected to another Remita payment page;
    8. Enter credit or debit (ATM) card number and other details as appropriate and submit;
    9. Enter “OTP code” sent to your phone number and click continue to complete your payment;
    10. After successful payment, click on “Main Login” on the portal, enter your JAMB Registration Number and Surname as password;
    11. Click on “Login to Dashboard” to complete your registration;
    12. Ensure that you print completed registration form and payment receipt.
      Note it is mandatory for all students to upload their O’ level results to JAMB portal, otherwise they’ll not be considered for admission.
  • Differentiate between conduit and surface wiring

    Differentiate between conduit and surface wiring by enumerating the tools and consumable materials used in each system

    NoConduit wiring Surface wiring
    1It is used to protect the cable inside the building or structureThese are wire that are installed outside the building
    2 In the case of PVC conduit, this wiring remains protected from rust as well as fireBut surface wiring conduit is not safe in case of fire outburst or any external harm because the PVC pipe is exposed
    3Once the wiring has been completed, additions or alterations in wiring become difficult.Removing or adding of wires can be easily done in surface wiring
    4It is more costly as compared to other types of wiringit is more cheaper
    5It is difficult to find out the defect and remove itYou can easily trace fault
    6It allows the wire to be easily arranged to avoid partial contact Due to the fact that the piping is exposed ( one eyes can see how the piping is done) there could be electric shock Incase of partial contact
    7Most conduit is rigid but some flexible conduit is used in pipeAll surface wiring are flexible
  • State two advantages and disadvantages of ELCB and wiring system

    Define the following terms;

    1. Earth continuity conductor: is a third conductor in line network or main distribution system with life and neutral that is bonded to the earth, which provides safety connection to any metal components not enclosed in the electrical circuit.
    2. Earthing lead: means the final conductor by which the connection to earth electrode is made
    3. Earth electrode: is a material used for earthing. Or is an electric wiring, a metal plate or any type of conductor buried under earth to ensure a good conductive path to the ground.
    4. Consumer’s Earth Terminal: is a terminal or busbar which is part of the earthing material of an installation and which enables the electric connection of a number of conductor for earthing purposes.

    State two advantages and disadvantages of ELCB

    1. It protects animals and humans from electric shock
    2. It’s cheap and efficient
    3. Failure to respond at certain conditions
    4. ELCB needs a sound earth connection for load protection.

    Merits of steel conduit wiring systems

    1. Offers exceptional free resistance
    2. It deflect nails and screws and doesn’t stretch or tear
      Demerits of steel conduit wiring systems
    3. It’s difficult to install
    4. Risk of electric shock

    List two advantages and disadvantages of trunking wiring system

    1. Offers exceptional corrosion resistance or alternative are possible
    2. Offers fire resistance or cheap and easy installation.
    3. Expensive compare to other wiring system
    4. Care and good workmanship are needed to ensure a successful installation

    List 10 hazard that can occur when working on electrical installation in building

    1. Overhead power lines
    2. Damaged tool and equipment
    3. Inadequate wiring and overload circuit
    4. Improper grounding
    5. Exposed electrical part
    6. Damaged insulation
    7. Wet condition
    8. Loose fittings plug
    9. Use of extension cords
    10. Overloading circuit

    List two major hazards listed above and describe any two ways by which hazards may be prevented

    1. Loose fittings plug
      I. Make sure enough sockets are available
      II. Ensure there are no trailing cable that can cause people to trip or fall
      III. Switch off and unplug appliances before cleaning or adjusting.
    2. Overhead power lines
      I. Use non conductive wood or fiber glass ladders.
      II. Know the safe working distance
      III. Wear personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • How is CGPA calculated in universities

    Please note that the University of Ibadan now uses a 4.0 Grading System.

    •First class : 3.50—-4.00

    •Second class(upper division) : 3.00 — 3.49

    •Second class (lower division) : 2.00 — 2.99

    •Third class : 1.00 — 1.99

    Fail : 0.00 — 0.99

    Marks Grade system

    A — 70 and above (4)

    B— 60-69% (3)

    C— 50-59% (2)

    D— 45-49% (1)

    E — 40-44% (0)

    How Students’ CGPAs Are Calculated

    Consider the below assumption

    The academic details of a student whose name is ‘XYZ’ is outlined below,

    Course Offered — Course Unit — Score — Grade Point

    Course offered course unit scoregrade
    Phy111382A, 4.0
    Phy112368B, 3.0
    Phy113375A, 4.0
    Mat111474A, 4.0
    CSC111365B, 3.0
    Zoo111272A, 4.0
    Zoo 114358C, 2.5
    GES111281A, 4.0
    GES112274A, 4.0
    GES113270A, 4.0
    CHE111468A, 3.0
    CHE112376A, 4.0
    CHE113381A, 4.0
    CHE116376A, 4.0
    Zoo119388B, 3.0
    CSC113371A, 4.0
    CGPA grading system

    Total course units — 46

    CGPA = (course unit x grade point) + (course unit x grade point) + (course unit + grade point) ……… / total course unit

    Using the results above,

    CGPA = (3×4) + (3×3) + (3×4) + (4×4)+ (3×3) + (2×4) + (3×2) + (2×4) + (2×4) + (2×4) +(4×3) + (3×4) + (3×4) + (3×4) + (3×4) + (3×4) / 46

    = 12+9+12+16+9+8+6+8+8+8+12+12+12+12+12+12 / 46

    = 168 /46

    = 3.65

    CGPA = 3.65 (Out of 4.00)

  • UI POST UTME Registration

    The following are the details and information you need for Registration after successful payment of the prescribed fees.

    • SURNAME:
    • First Name:
    • Middle Name:
    • JAMB Registration number:
    • State Of Origin:
    • Local Government: Faculty Applying to: Department Applying to:
    • Gender:
    • Marital status:
    • Date of birth:
    • Country:
    • Permanent home address:
    • Valid email address: Phone number:
    • Are you Physically challenged:
    • Have you matriculated in UI? :
    • Next of kin name:
    • Next of kin address: Next of kin phone number:
    • Next of kin email address:

    Please note, use a valid email address and phone number.

    It’s not necessary to use the same email address and phone number you used for JAMB Registration, especially if you don’t have access to it any longer.

    Follow the instructions on the portal carefully. Any mistake can cost you your admission. No one is responsible for it.

    If you can not handle the registration by yourself, kindly go to a Cafe.

    After successful payment and Registration, kindly print out and keep your receipts and evidence of completion of Registration. Take note of your username and password.

    You’ll be required to visit the admission portal after two weeks of Registration in order to print out your bio data.

  • Laws of electromagnetic induction and solutions

    State lenz’s law and faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction

    Lenz’s law states that the direction of an induced electromotive force (e.m.f) is always that it tends to set a current opposing the motion or the change of the flux responsible for inducing the e.m.f
    Faraday’s law: First law states that whenever there is a change in the magnetic inclines in a circuit, there will always be an induced e.m.f in the circuit or whenever a conductor acts on magnetic flux or it’s cut by a magnetic flux, an e.mf is induced in that conductor.
    Second law states that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly proportional to the rate of change in magnetic flux( or magnetic lines) linking to the circuit.

    State three (3) factors in which the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field depends
    I. Strength of magnetic field
    II. Strength of electric conductor
    III. Length of conductor

    With the aid of suitable diagram, describe the magnetic field around a solenoid

    Solenoid Is the number of a turns of wire wound in the same direction. All the turns in a solenoid are in the same direction so that they can assist one another passing a magnetic field. For instance if a rod of iron is inserted inside the solenoid, only the magnetic field becomes intensified.
    The magnetic field inside a solenoid is proportional to both the current and the number of turns per unit length. There is no dependence on the diameter of the solenoid and the field strength does not depend on the position inside the solenoid i.e the field inside is constant.

    1. A conductor of active length 0.3m moves in a magnetic field at a linear velocity of 500m/s. If the magnetic flux density is 0.05T, calculate the average value of the induced e.m.f, if the direction of movement of the conductor is perpendicular to the field.
      The average value of the induced e.m.f = magnetic flux density × length × velocity
      Therefore e.m.f, E = BLV
      B = 0.05T, L = 0.3m, velocity= 500m/s
      0.3×0.05×500 = 7.5volts
    1. A coil of 1000 turns and length 0.2m carries a current of 5A. If the cross sectional area of the magnetic circuit is proportional to the flux 1.0cm² and the flux produced by the coil is 0.15mWb. Calculate the permeability of the magnetic material.
      L = 0.2m, N = 1000 turns, I = 5A, A = 1.0cm² = 0.01m², ∅ = 0.15mWb
      Length= L, number of turns= N, current= I, area = A, flux = 0.15×10–³Wb
      ∅ = BA; B = ∅/A; B = 0.00015/0.01
      Flux density, B = 0.015wb/m²
      Magnetic field=H
      H = IN/L
      (5 × 1000) ÷ 0.2 = 25,000A/m
      Calculate the permeability of the magnetic material
      Permeability of the magnetic material = flux density/ magnetic field
      B/H = 0.015/25000
      6 × 10–⁷ Tesla/Ampere meter
      (III) Magnemotive force (M.M.F)
      This is the flux which drives magnetic flux through a magnetic circuit ( i.e the route or path which is followed by magnetic flux ) and correspond to electromagnetic force (e.m.f) in any electric circuit. It is usually measured in Ampere turns
      F = IN
      where F = Magnemotive force
      I = current
      N = number of turns
  • What is an automatic gain control?

    What is an automatic gain control?
    It is a closed loop feedback regulating in an amplifier or chain of amplifiers, the purpose of which is to maintain a suitable signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the output.
    1. Explain the purpose of automatic gain control in radio receiver
    The AGC circuit keeps the receiver’s output level from fluctuating too much by detecting the overall strength of the signal and automatically adjusting the gain of the receiver to maintain the output level within an acceptable range. It is used in most radio receiver to eaualize the average volume (loudness) of different radio stations due to differences in received signal strength.

    1. Explain the purpose of carrier wave frequency
      The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave ( as in radio communication) or to allow several carriers at different frequency to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing ( as in a cable television system)
  • Highlight five(5) differences between single phase and three phase supplies

    Single phase supply Three phase supply
    In a single phase supply, it power is supplied through two wires. It is called neutral and phase(life) wire.In three phase power supply, the power is supplied through four wires, that is three phase and one neutral
    The voltage of one phase is 230vThe voltage of three phase is 415v
    It requires more than more wire than three phase supplyIt does not require more wire
    The efficiency of one phase is not higher than three phase supplyThe efficiency of three phase supply is higher than one phase supply
    One phase supply isn’t complex since it has only two wires neutral included) making it more easier o understandThree phase supply has a four wire( neutral included) making it more complex to understand
    Single and three phase supply

    List three factors which affect the inductance of a inductor

    1. The number of turns
    2. The diameter of the coil
    3. The length of the coil
  • What is an adjacent channel interference (ACI) in Telecommunication

    What is an adjacent channel interference (ACI)? ACI may be caused by inadequate filtering, improper tuning and poor frequency control

    Mention 4 ways by which adjacent channel interference can be reduced or eliminated.

    1. Using modulation which shows the scheme have low out-of-bound radiation.
    2. Carefully designing the bandpass filter at the receiver front
    3. Assigning adjacent channel to different cells in order to keep the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large as possible.
    4. Accurate filtering and channel allocation ( maximizing channel intervals of the cell)
      Frequency deviation: it is used in FM radio to describe the difference between the minimum or maximum extent of a frequency modulated signal and the nominal center or carrier frequency.
      Side frequency: The frequency of oscillation that appears along with the principal carrier frequency is when the oscillation are modulated. They differ from the carrier frequency by a value that is either equal to or a multiple of the frequency of the modulating signal.
      Modulating index: It’s defined as a measure of the extent of modulation done on a carrier signal wave. In amplitude modulation, it can be defined as the ratio of the amplitude of a modulating signal to that of the amplitude of carrier signal.
      Side band: Is the portion of modulating carrier waves that is either above or below the basic (baseband) signal. The portion above baseband signal is the upper sideband while the portion below is the lower sideband.


    1. Photocopy of clearance form: Final clearance is a happy journey of fulfilment that you’ve successfully completed your school processes, but endeavor you’ve done all registration as necessary. The first thing you’ve to do after your ND/HND program is to endeavor that you pay clearance and notification of Results online. After you’ll take it to admission office, a clearance form will be handed over to you to go and fill with the appropriate signature and stamp.
      The things you should be expecting to be filled in the form by you include the signature of Hall warden, your practical lecturers, Director of VSESC, alumni, protocol officer, librarian and Dean if students affairs. But don’t panic once you start you’ll see some of your colleagues that have done theirs successfully.
      Once you’re done submitting this form to each respective personnel allocated to sign you can photocopy this form along with the other three listed below for submission before going to Exams and Record.
    2. Photocopy of VSESC final clearance form: This receipt is meant for all EED payment you made from ND1 to ND2
    3. Photocopy of Alumni Clearance form: A form will be given to you to fill appropriately, once you’re done with the clearance form.
    4. Photocopy of school or departmental ID card: This is self explanatory, you’ll have to do photocopy of either your school ID card or departmental ID card
    5. Summits to exams and record: This is very essential if you want to see your results ( either NOR or certificate)


    1. National Diploma Programmes ( Full Time students)
    2. Higher National Diploma Programmes ( Full Time and DPP students)
    3. Post Graduate Diploma in urban and regional planning (URP)
    4. Daily part-time programmes (DPP National Diploma)
    5. Continuing Education center ( Part Time National Diploma and Higher National Diploma)
    NOTE: Application form for all the above stated programmes are obtainable online via tpiportal.polyibadan.edu.ng/admissions


    1. You must have uploaded on CAPS the results that qualified you for the programmes you applied for
    2. You must have been ADMITTED by jamb, accepted the admission and print out the following documents
      A. JAMB Result Slip
      B. JAMB Admission letter
      C. You must also print out The Polytechnic, Ibadan Admission Slip


    1. Login to The Polytechnic, Ibadan application portal
    2. Click on the admission status
    3. Once you have been admitted, click on continue registration.
    4. Step number 3 will take you to the student portal
    5. Once you’re in the student portal, you’re expected to create a new account by clicking on “New Registration? begin here”
    6. Input your form number and click on proceed to e-clearance.
    7. Input your details as requested and create the account.
    8. To access your newly created Account, login to (tpiportal.polyibadan.edu.ng/portal)
    9. Input your form number and new password
    10. To pay your acceptance fee, click on fee payment and select acceptance fee.
    11. Once payment is made, ensure to also print out your offer of provisional admission slip by clicking on admission slip on the dashboard.


    1. Visit the registration portal at tpiportal.polyibadan.edu.ng/portal/
    2. Enter your form number and log in your new password created on the student portal.
    3. Click on e-clearance and upload the following documents.
      A. Ordinary Level Result (WAEC, NECO or NABTEB) with valid result token.
      B. Letter of Admission from the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board.
      C. Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) Result Slip as issued by the Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB)
      D. Notification of Results/ND certificate (for HND student)


    Please find below a step by step guide to follow during your registration

    • Pay your acceptance fee
    • Proceed to e-clearance to upload your documents
    • Once cleared pay all your fees
    • Once cleared proceed to Faculty for faculty registration
    • Proceed to your various Departments for Departmental registration
    • Health Medical Registration ( once you’ve done this and fully cleared you’ll be given a yellow file that will make you eligible to come and receive free treatment and drugs)


    • Ordinary Level Result (WAEC, NECO or NABTEB) with valid result token.
    • Letter of Admission from the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board ( Full Time only)
    • Part-time application form filled at the JAMB office ( DPP students only)
    • Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) Result Slip as issued by the Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB)
    • One (1) reference letter attesting to your good character from a reputable individual ( which can be a lawyer, doctor, jurist, clerk/imam e.tc)
    • Your birth certificate or sworn affidavit of declaration of age
    • One (1) passport photograph

    NOTE: You’re strongly advise to carry out all online payment and online Registration at the following accredited Business centers. To know more about the school admission visit http://admission.polyibadan.edu.ng/
    a) ICT center, beside WEMA bank at North campus
    b) Library
    c) VSESC office located after admission office
    d) Micro-Finance Bank

  • Requirements and Subjects Combinations for CLA in University of Ibadan

    Requirements and Subjects Combinations for Communication And Language Arts in University of Ibadan. (As copied from the official website of the school).

    COMMUNICATION & LANGUAGE ARTS is believed to be equivalent to MASS COMMUNICATION in other institutions.


    2 ‘A’ level passes to include Literature in English and one other Arts or Social Science subjects.


    English Language, Literature in English and any other from Arts, Social Sciences or Science [Please note that Government and Economics are not Arts subjects]


    5 ‘O’ Level Credits at one sitting or 6 ‘O’ Level Credits at 2 sittings to include English Language, two Arts to include Lit-in-English and any other three or four subjects from Arts, Social Sciences or Science [Please note that Government and Economics are not Arts subjects]


    IBADAN accepts: OND Mass Communication with an Upper Credit grade only. Note: Applicants must in addition, have passed Lit-in-English at ‘O’ Level to qualify for Direct Entry admission.

  • University Of Ibadan Requirements For Pharmacy Department

    Requirements for Pharmacy

    Direct Entry Requirements

    i) A/Level Passes in Chemistry, Biology, Physics or Mathematics plus UME requirements.
    (ii) B.Sc degree in relevant fields.

    UTME Requirements

    English Language, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.

    O’level Requirements

    5 O’ Level Credit Passes in English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology at a single sitting.

    Special Remarks

    UI accepts 5 credit passes at one sitting in English Language, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics and Biology.


    Update for UNILAG screening


    The Management of Unilag has extended the sale of admission screening form for 2022/2023 academic session. The deadline for the closing date is now November 11, 2022.

    Note: This is also because of those that recently did change of institution to UNILAG

    1. Make sure you attend UNILAG screening Exam
    2. Make sure you are 16 years of Age and above
    3. Make sure you meet the requirements for both o level and jamb.
    4. Make sure your o level is uploaded on jamb portal.
    5. No exam, just online registration.
    6. O level result and Jamb result will be used to determine ur aggregate.
    7. Those who wanted to use Awaiting result, make sure your results is coming out this month or during the Admissions processing period.
    8. Make sure you have scored 200 and above in jamb
  • UI Direct entry requirements for MLS and Civil engineering

    Requirements for Medical Laboratory Science.

    Direct Entry Requirements;

    i) 3 A level passes in Chemistry, Biology and one other science subject.

    UTME Requirements:

    English Language, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology


    5 O’ Level Credit Passes in English Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology

    Special Remarks;

    UI accepts HND with Upper Credit in related fields or equivalent professional qualifications. Two O/L sittings are not accepted.

    Requirements for Civil Engineering.


    2 ‘A’ level passes in Physics and Mathematics plus UTME requirements.


    English Language, Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics.


    5 ‘O’ level subjects at one sitting or 6 ‘O’ level subjects at 2 sittings to include English Language, Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics with any ONE or TWO of the following subjects as the case may be; Biology, Agricultural Science, Further Mathematics, Technical Drawing, Economics, Geography, Metal Work and Wood Work.


    1. OND/HND at upper credit level {65%} accepted to 200/300 levels respectively plus UME requirements.
    2. Knowledge of Further Mathematics is an advantage for all Engineering courses.


    The management of the University of Abuja (UNIABUJA), has released the programmes of events for the 2022/2023 Sandwich contact.

    1October 26th – 28th October, 2022.Mopping up of backlog of 2021 Teaching Practice
    2November 3rd – November 4th, 2022.Training Programs for Teaching Staff
    3November 7th – December 21st, 2022.Lectures
    4December 21st – 2nd January, 2023.Christmas Break
    5January 3rd – 15th January, 2023.Lectures continue
    6January 16th – 18th February, 2023.Examinations
    7February 18th – 16th March, 2023.Processing of Results
    830th March , 2023.Release of Results
    91st April – 20th of June, 2023Sale of Admission form

    To know more about university of Abuja Academic Calendar visit UNIAbuja Academic Calendar


    Kindly note that FUTA does not release cut off marks yearly. You can’t get the cut off marks unless it leaks. The last cut off mark that leaked is that of 2017 and it is what we will use as a guide. As of 2017, the following are the departmental cut off marks.


    1. Agricultural Extension and Communication (AEC)-47.5
    2. Animal Production and Health(APH)–55.37
    3. Agricultural Resources and Economics(ARE)–47.5
    4. Crop and Soil Protection (CSP) -47.5
    5. Ecotourism and Wildlife Management(EWM)-47.5
    6. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology(FAT)-47.5
    7. Food Science and Technology(FST)-58.12
    8. Forestry and Wood Technology(FWT)- 47.5


    1. Applied Geophysics (AGP)–47.5
    2. Applied Geology (AGY)–47.5
    3. Marine Science and Technology(MST)-47.5
    4. Metrology Sciences (MCS)–47.5
    5. Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics(RSG)-47.5


    1. Architecture (ARC)—-72.87
    2. Building Technology (BDG)-56.62
    3. Estate Management (ESM)-47.5
    4. Industrial Design(IDD)-53.25
    5. Quantity Surveying (QSV)-57
    6. Surveying (SVG)-64.25
    7. Urban and Regional Planning (URP).-52.87


    1. Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (AGE)-55.12
    2. Computer Engineering (CPE)-69.62
    3. Civil and Environmental Engineering
    4. Electronics and Electrical Engineering
    5. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-49.75
    6. Industrial and Production Engineering
    7. Mechanical Engineering (MEE)-73.75
    8. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering(MME)-54.87

    Recently, two courses were just accredited and added to Engineering and they are Mechatronics Engineering and; Chemical Engineering


    1. Biochemistry (BCH)-63.37
    2. Biology (BIO)-47.5
    3. Biotechnology (BTH)-47.5
    4. Microbiology (MCB)-63


    1. Chemistry (CHE)-47.5
    2. Mathematical Sciences (MTS)-59
    3. Physics(PHY)-47.5
    4. Statistics (STA)-47.5


    1. Computer Science (CSC)–69
    2. Information Technology (IFT)-63.75
    3. Information Systems (IFS)-63.75
    4. Cyber Security (CSY)–63.75
    5. Software Engineering (SEN)-63.75


    Medicine and Surgery was accredited last year and that’s the maiden set. The cut off point was 84.45. The highest in Nigeria. Other departments in the college of Medicine are in the SCHOOL OF BASIC MEDICINE

    1. Human Anatomy (ANA)-59.5
    2. Biomedical Technology (BMT).57.25
    3. Human Physiology (PHS)- 47.5


    Aggregate = Jamb score/8 + post UTME Score/2

    Assuming Fola had 300 in Jamb and 80% in post UTME. Fola’s aggregate = (300/8)+(80/2)
    37.5+40 =77.5%

  • Calculate the average speed?


    Rectilinear Acceleration
    Equation of uniformly accelerated motion
    Problem solving using equation of motion
    Instantaneous Velocity and instantaneous acceleration
    Graphical solutions to problems in rectilinear Acceleration
    Motion under gravity: Gravitational Acceleration

    What is SPEED in physics

    Imagine you’re on your way to school and someone ask you what is SPEED, what will you say?
    In a lame man language speed is the number of distance you covered per time taken to cover the distance
    IN PHYSICS; SPEED is defined as the rate of change of distance per time
    Average speed = distance / time = change in distance / change in time = s/t
    D2 – D1/ t2 – t1 = final distance – initial distance/ final time – initial time = s/t
    The S.I unit for speed is m/s

    Example 1

    A student cover a distance of 5km in 30 minutes. Calculate the average speed?
    Average speed = distance/time = 5 × 1000/ 30 × 60
    4.17m/s ( 4.17 meter per seconds)

    Example 2

    A driver traveling at a speed of 245km/hr received a text message on his mobile phone. How far is he, in kilometers, 30s later from when he received the text?
    Speed = 245km/hr, time,t = 20s, ( 30s = 30/3600hr). Distance, s = ?
    Distance = speed × time = 245km/hr × 30hr/3600 ( hr will cancel out)
    245/120 = 2.04km

    What is velocity?

    Velocity is the same thing as speed only that it moves in a specific directions, it is a vector quantity. Velocity can be defined as the rate of change of distance moved with time in a specific direction. It is also defined as the rate of change of displacement with time. Displacement means distance traveled in a specific direction.
    Velocity = displacement/time = change in displacement/change in time
    =( Final displacement – initial displacement) / (final time – initial time)
    However speed is used in place of velocity and vice versa. The S.I unit for velocity is m/s.

    To see more related post visit https://www.toppr.com/guides/quantitative-aptitude/averages/average-speed/

  • What are the Documents Required for UNI ABUJA Post UTME

    For Admitted students, be reminded that physical screening for department is compulsory, despite generating your matriculation number and paying school fees, your department must approve you as their students. I therefore write to inform you, that all screening officers across all departments will be on seat from Tuesday 25th of October, to attend to those that are not yet screened prior to ASUU strike.

    This is not a disclaimer, to clear the air, Students should submit Form 01 to faculty on Monday, October 24th. After filling the form wait there and get it stamped, then bring it for submission on Tuesday for screening.

    NOTE: UNI ABUJA do not write Post UTME Exam rather they do screening for students. If any students failed to be screened by the school administrative officers that students will forfeit his/her admission for that year despite being admitted.


    1. Jamb Original Result
    2. O’level Results
    3. Birth Certificate/Declaration of Age
    4. Certificate of Origin
    5. Passport Photograph (either white or red background)
    6. A valid email address and phone number
    7. A valid O’level result scratch card.
    8. Signature and Home Address
    9. Other personal information
    10. A’Level/JUPEB/IJMB/OND/NCE/HND and others (Direct Entry Only)

    NOTE: UniAbuja Post UTME screening for the 2022/23 academic session is to commence next week Wednesday, Dec 28th and end Wednesday, January 25th (about a month). If you know you don’t have some of the aforementioned things, it’s high time you get them

    University of Abuja Post UTME print out

    Do direct entry students need original jamb results

    No, D.E students don’t write JAMB but you’ll need to submit your original direct entry form you use to apply for uni Abuja 2021/2022 admission

    Do university of Abuja write Post UTME

    University of Abuja don’t write Post UTME, what they do is screening and the following documents that you need to be eligible to study in this great citadel have been listed above.

    Do university of Abuja use Transcript too

    Yes, if you’re transferring from another school to university of Abuja but direct entry students don’t need transcript since you’re applying to the school, not transferring.

    To check out more of this post and UNIAbuja Facebook group page, where you can find more of this post visit UNIAbuja aspirants group

  • (Free PDF) Download LAUTECH Post UTME Past Questions and Answers For Free


    Download free original Post UTME Past Questions and Answers for Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), so as to enable you to prepare well for the upcoming Post UTME Screening Examination. Note that LAUTECH Post UTME Past Questions is totally free of charge.

    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH)

    The Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), past questions and answers are available in a free downloadable PDF format. All you have to do is click on the subject of your choice to start downloading.

    Download LAUTECH Post UTME question for free

    For Your Post UTME, we have LAUTECH Post UTME Past Questions for all departments available here. And you can also download as much as possible for free.

    The benefits of LAUTECH Post UTME Past question and answer

    Why you need Post UTME Past question and answer for Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH)

    1. Sample of the questions LAUTECH has set for their students before
    2. To verify if questions are been repeated or not
    3. Nature of the exam: Helps to inform you if the exam is what you expected or not ( i.e if it’s hard or simple) for you to know how to tighten your belt for the upcoming Post UTME Screening exam
    4. How many Questions stipulated time allowed for each Post UTME Exam
    5. Marking scheme for the exam

    Practically , studying with Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Post UTME Past question and answer helps increase speed and accuracy.

    Eligibility for LAUTECH Post UTME 2022

    • Candidates who chose Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) as their 1st choice.
    • Candidates who scored 200 and above in the last Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME).
    • Candidates who possess a minimum of five(5) O’level credit passes in accordance with the University’s Entry Requirements.
    • Candidates should be 17 years and above.

    How to Apply for Post UTME Form

    You can apply for LAUTECH Post UTME at www.lautech.edu.ng/eportals. You will have to fill out the online registration form and upload your O’Level result on the portal as well. If you’re getting ready for the Post UTME make sure you always check their website for updated information Candidates are to Visit www.lautech.edu.ng/eportals but for now the deadline for the Post UTME has not been communicated or passed across. Make sure you always check their website for authentication.

    You can now download the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) post UTME past questions and answers (PDF) for free here. This page contains core subject combinations for LAUTECH post UTME. On this page is also the LAUTECH Post UTME subjects for candidates applying for Electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, mechatronics engineering, metallurgical engineering, mining engineering, Biochemistry, International Relations, Physiology, Accounting, Environmental and so on.

    We are offering FREE post UTME past questions and answers to candidates? We understand that past questions are one of the most helpful tools available to prepare for examinations as they provide students with a practical insight on what to expect in the examinations.
    Download LAUTECH Post UTME Past Questions and Answers For Free
    NOTE: The LAUTECH Post-UTME Past-Questions and Answers are absolutely free.

    The LAUTECH past questions and answers contain the following subjects: ( Click any of this subject to start downloading)

    Necessary documents that will be required after LAUTECH Post UTME Screening exam

    1. Court Affidavits: This is just a legal statement of good conduct and anti-cultism. Make sure you follow LAUTECH format, get it done in an high court, ensure it is signed, stamped and sealed.
    2. Certificate of Origin: you’re to get this in the local government you filled during jamb registration compulsorily. If you can’t travelled down there,contact someone over there to get it done on your behalf and travel it to you. Liaison office documents isn’t welcomed.
    3. Certificate of Birth: This can be gotten from your local government secretariat or general hospital ONLY.
    4. Jamb Documents: You’re to generate RRR for both the original result and admission letter from jamb. Make sure you print them coloured.
    5. LAUTECH Documents: post utme results and JAMB admission letter is a necessity during registration.
    6. Attestation letter: A letter of good conduct from a reputable personality or organisation about you. To be addressed to the registrar.
    7. O_level result and testimonial: Online print out is an error, make sure you get the original result from your school unless it’s not out officially then you can present statement of results. Some registration officer won’t accept statements of results. Leaving school testimonial is also required.
  • Briefly explain a cathode ray oscilloscope [6 marks




    These are familiar piece of measuring equipment, as no Tv programme with a science content is complete without the display of instantaneous voltage values on an oscilloscope. It is an indispensable instrument in any laboratory where voltage form a simple basic instrument to the sophisticated/complex programmable instrument with digital readout, are written on the oscilloscope, only the principles and main features of these instruments are introduced here.

    Block Diagram Of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Salient Features

    1. Cathode Ray Tube[CRT]: It displays the quantity being measured.
    2. Vertical Amplifier: It amplifies the signal waveform to be viewed.
    3. Horizontal Amplifier: It is fed with a saw tooth voltage which is then applied to the x-plates.
    4. Sweep Generators: This produces saw tooth voltage waveform used for horizontal deflection of the electron beam.
    5. Trigger Circuit: This produces trigger pulses to start horizontal sweep.
    6. High and low power supply.
  • Resistance of 40Ω, inductance of 0.4Hz and capacitance of 200µF are connected in series and are fed by 200v, 60Hz supply. Find;


    A resistance of 40Ω, inductance of 0.4Hz and capacitance of 200µF are connected in series and are fed by 200v, 60Hz supply. Find;

    1. Inductance Reactance, XL
    2. Capacitance Reactance, XC
    3. Magnitude of impedance, Z of the RLC Circuit
    4. Magnitude of admittance, Y of the RLC circuit


    R = 40 Ω, L = O.4H, Capacitance = 200 × 10-6F, Frequency = 60Hz, Voltage = 200v.

    1.  Inductance Reactance, XL

    X= WL = 2ΠF × L   ;      2 × 3.142 × 60 × 0.4

                                          =150.816 Ω

    1. Capacitance Reactance, XC

    XC = 1/Wc = 1/2ΠF × C = 13.33Ω

    1. Magnitude of impedance, Z of the RLC Circuit

    Z =

    Z =

    Z =  = 143.187Ω

    1. Magnitude of admittance, Y of the RLC circuit

    Y =   =   =  -3 Ω

  • 3-phase induction motor is wound for 4 Poles and is supplied from a 50Hz system. Calculate;

    1. Synchronous speed
    2. Rotor speed when slip is 4%
    3. Rotor frequency (5 marks)

    I) Synchronous speed = f/p = 50/2 = 25rev/sec
    II) Rotor slip 4% = Ns – Nr/ Ns × 100.
    4/100 = 25- Nr/25
    100 = 2500 – 100 Nr
    100Nr = 2400Nr
    Nr = 24rev/sec [RPM]III) Rotor frequency = [Ns-Nr]P
    = [25-24]2 = 2Hz



    1. Batteries should be kept neat and clean to increase the life of the battery.
    2. Dirt or other foreign materials should not be allowed to be accumulated in the cells, as it results into heavy discharge, on account of short circuit.
    3. Connector should be coated with petroleum jelly or Vaseline to increase the life.
    4. Alkaline batteries should not be installed in the room along with head acid battery to avoid short circuit.
    5. Topping to the electrolyte level should be done with distilled water for proper reaction.
    6. Terminal voltages should not be allowed below the minimum voltage specified by the manufacturer to increase the life of the battery efficiently.


    1. Positive plates become dark brown in colour and negative plates become grey.
    2. Specific gravity of sulphuric acid increased from 1.8 to 2.3V
    3. Voltage of each cell rises from 1.8 to 2.3V
    4. Energy is absorbed in the cell
      ]5. Cell delivers gazing when the charging is completed
    5. It’s one of the economical devices to transmit electrical power at high voltage and current. Can also be reduced at the designed voltages when required.
    6. Its efficiency is very high in comparison to other electrical machine.
    7. It can be operated very easily with little operation.
    8. It maintenance cost is less, in comparison to other electrical machineries.
    9. Number of tappings can be taken out from the secondary windings for voltage in only one transformer, which is used for transistor and low voltage appliances.
    10. It can be taken from place to place very easily and it’s even used in house industry.
    11. This can be designed for very high voltages, as there is much space to insulate winding.


    1. Tin the strands
    2. Do not put the solder directly on the soldering iron.
    3. Remove or withraw the solder or iron
    4. Don’t move the parts until solder have been cooled or set.
    5. Use only enough solder to flow over all surfaces (not too much or too little)
    6. Use sufficiently heated up soldering iron bit, to heat the mechanical connection on side. While applying the solder From the other side
    7. Strip the insulation or coating from the ends of the wire to be soldered ( peel the sheath to expose the strands)
    8. Make a strong mechanical connection to ensure good electrical flow, after solder have been placed on it (twist the strands? [6 marks

    At the end of this blog post, you should be able to understand how to;

    1. solve problems involving resistivity and conductivity
    2. deduce the equivalent resistance of series and parallel circuits
    3. solve problems on series and parallel resistors

    Example: A cylinder wire of 1.5m in length, 5.0mm in diameter, has a resistance of 3.5Ohms. Calculate the resistivity of the wire.

    formula, R = 𝔓L/A
    Length, L = 1.5m, 𝔓= resistivity = ?
    Radius r = 5.0mm/2 = 2.5mm = 2.5×10⁻³m
    Cross sectional area, A = πr² = 22/7 × (2.5×10⁻³)²m²
    𝔓= RA/L = [3.5 × (22/7) × (2.5 ×10⁻³)² ] ÷ 0.5
    𝔓= 45.833 × 10⁻⁶ ohm-meter

    A wire of diameter 0.6mm, resistivity 1.1 × 10⁻⁶Ωm has resistance of 44Ω. Calculate the length of the wire.

    Here, we are given:
    Radius, r = 0.6/2 mm = 3 × 10⁻⁴m
    To find L we deduce it from 𝔓= RA/L (i.e L = RA/𝔓)
    L = [ 44 × 22/7 × (3 × 10⁻⁴)² ] ÷ 1.1 10⁻⁶
    L = 11.3m

    A 30m conductor of cross sectional area 2mm has a resistance of 10Ω. Calculate the conductivity of the conductor.

    𝔓= L/RA
    = 30 ÷ [10 × 2(10⁻³)² = 1.5 × 10⁶ (Ωm)⁻¹


    Equivalent Resistance of a series circuit

    Equivalent resistor circuit
    Series resistor
    1. When resistors of resistance R₁, R₂ and R₃ are joint together, they’re said to be connected in series. It should be noted that;
      The current through a series circuit is the same all over ( I.e I=i₁=i₂=i₃).
      The voltage drop across each resistor is different depending on its resistances
      The applied voltage (Vs) is equal to the sum of the Potential difference across each resistor. (i.e Vs = V(R₁) + V(R₂) + V(R₃) or V = V₁ + V₂ + V₃
      Where Vs = IR; V₁ = IR₁; V₂ = IR₂; V₃ = IR₃
      IR = IR₁ + IR₂ + IR₃
      ⇒(equivalent resistance), Req = R₁ + R₂ + R₃
      For n resistors connected in series, the equivalent resistance
      Req is given by Req = R₁ + R₂ + R₃+ ……..Rₙ


    How to find parallel resistors circuit
    Parallel resistors circuit
    When sistors of resistance R₁, R₂ and R₃ are connected in parallel, the following statements hold good;
    The p.d across each resistor is the same
    The current flowing through each resistor is different
    The supply current (I) is equal to the sum of current flowing through each resistor i.e Vs = V₁ = V₂ = V₃
    I = i₁ + i₂ + i₃
    Where I = Vs/R; i₁ = Vs/R₁; i₂ = Vs/R₂; i₃ = Vs/R₃
    Recall I = Vs/R
    Therefore, Vs/R = Vs/R₁ + Vs/R₂ + Vs/R₃
    ⇒1/R = 1/Req = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂ + 1/R₃
    For n resistors connected in parallel
    1/Req = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂ + 1/R₃…….+ 1/Rₙ

    Example: In the circuit below, determine the two voltages drops across R₁ and R₂?

    How to solve Electrical parallel and series resistors
    Electrical parallel and series resistors
    R₁ = 2.2Ω, R₂ = 1.8Ω, V = 12v, I = ?, V₁ = ?, V₂ = ?
    First solve for total resistance
    RT = R₁ + R₂
    = 2.2 + 1.8 = 4Ω
    Second, solve for current:
    I = V/RT = 12/4 = 3 amp
    Finally, solve for voltage drop across any resistor
    Voltage drop across R
    V₁ = I × R₁ = 3 × 2.2 = 6.6v
    Voltage drop across R
    V₂ = I × R₂ = 3 × 1.8 = 5.4v
    The sum of all voltage drops (6.6v + 5.4v) equals the source voltage (12v).

    When will ASUU Resume back to School?

    I know you want to be informed on School Resumption, pertaining to both State and Federal government university, due to ASUU strike. In this article, we’ll show you all you need to know about School Resumption Date in Nigeria after ASUU strike and when Federal and State university are resuming(Latest information).

    ASUU Strike Update Today!

    ASUU strike update 2022- The Union President says ASUU strike has been suspended. The Academic Staff Union has suspended its strike that started on the 14th of February has been suspended on the 14th of October (making it 8 month strike). 
    The union decided to suspend the strike during a meeting held by the vice- chancellor and executive council of Universities. The meeting started on Thursday night and lasted into the early hours of Friday morning ( the meeting lasted for lengthy 6 hours).
    The decision was taken unanimously by members of its National Executive council members after a lengthy 6 hours meeting which started on Thursday night.

    When will ASUU Resume

    The information reaching us today, 14th October, 2022 says ASUU strike has been suspended. The 8- month strike has been suspended conditionally, universities to reopen on Monday, the 17th of October, 2022.

    Has ASUU Called Off Strike 2022

    A resounding Yes!
    Congratulations to Nigerian students. The information reaching us now is that the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) has suspended the strike for 2022 session. The president of ASUU ( Prof. Emmanuel Osodeke) said ” the meeting held by the union Executive committee, which comprises the chairman of the state chapters and members of the executive council in ASUU National secretariat at Abuja was a positive one and not a bad one. Universities are hereby asked to resume school on Monday, 17th 2022. o sign the legal document required for meeting the demand of the school lecturers” This implies that ASUU has been called off for 2022.
    NOTE: Suspended not called off. Let’s hope that this will lead to the end of all this incessant strike that has marred the state of our educational systems. Congratulation to all Nigerian students 
  • The Polytechnic Ibadan Requirements For Clearance Exercise

    What clearance form will I submit after admission?

    The clearance file varies, depending on if you’re Full Time or Daily part-time students. We have;

    1. Faculty file: The word Faculty comprises of many related department coming together to form a legalize division. For instance the faculty of engineering is called FENG in Polytechnic, Ibadan. Electrical, mechanical, mechatronics engineering and so on are under FENG, the same thing applies to other departments. You must endeavor to submit your file given to you by your coordinator to your respective department.
    2. Departmental file: Each course have is own department. The school has Masscom department ( i.e Mass communication department) banking and finance department and so many more. Each students are expected to submit their clearance file to their respective department
    3. DPP file (for DPP students only): This file should be submitted at the DPP office at North campus.


    1. Original Jamb Admission Letter
    2. Original Jamb Result
    3. PolyIbadan Admission Letter
    4. PolyIbadan Application Slip
    5. Original O’Level Result (NECO, WAEC, NABTEB)
    6. O’Level Result checker (NECO, WAEC, NABTEB)
    7. Letter of Recommendation from your community
    8. Birth certificate or sworn affidavit of declaration of age
    9. Passport (8)

    In Polytechnic Ibadan, if you donot print your course form at the stipulated period of time given to you by the school administrator, your results for that semester will be delayed for a set-time. Mind you, you cannot print your course form without paying your school fees first.

    If you’re in engineering department you’ll be given a yellow file. Each Department have their colour file. Some are blue, some purple and many more. If you want to graduate from Polytechnic Ibadan without no issues you must make sure you submit all this files before the deadline.

    NOTE: The deadline for submitting the file will be communicated to you after 4 weeks of resumption. Please note that Polytechnic Ibadan is a no nonsense school, you must endeavor to submit all clearance file to your respective department.


    At the end of this post, you should be able to;

    State Joule’s law

    Solve problems involving Electrical energy and power

    Solve simple problems on Joule’s law
    It state that, the amount of work required to maintain a current of I amperes through a resistance of R ohms, for time t seconds is I²R
    E = IVt, joules
    Or E = I²Rt, joules
    Or E = V²t/R, joules
    The above expression are also known as joules Law, which states that; Electrical Energy E is the energy required for V volts of electricity to make an electric current of I amperes to flow through a conductor of resistance R Ohms for a time T seconds.

    Calculate the work done in moving through a distance of 25m by a force of 20N which acts in the opposite direction of the motion of the body.

    Since work done = F × d
    D = 20 ×25 = 500j

    A force of 40N is applied to a body to move it at a uniform velocity through a distance of 15m in 10seconds in the direction of the force. Calculate the power produced.

    Workdone = force × distance
    40 × 15 = 600J
    Power = workdone/time taken
    = 600/10 = 60W

    An electric motor develops 5Kw at the speed of 100 rev/min. Calculate (a) the work done in 30min.

    (I) in kilowatt hour (II) in mega joules (III) the torque in N-m

    (I) Workdone in KWh = power (in kw) × time(in hours)
    = 5 × 30/60 = 2.5KWh
    work done in mega joules, but 1Kwh = 3.6MJ
    Therefore w.d = 2.5 × 3.6 = 9MJ
    Power= 2π × T × n
    5000 = 2πT × 1000/60
    T = 47.74N-m

    An electric kettle takes 2KW at 240V. Calculate;

    (a) the current and

    (b) the resistance of the heating element

    Power = 2KW, = 2000Watts; voltage(V) = 240v
    Calculate current, I
    Recall power, P = IV
    Make I the subject of the formula,
    I = P/V = 2000/240
    I = 8.33A
    Resistance(R) = ?
    P = I²R; R = P/I²
    R = 2000/8.33²
    2000/69.39 = 28.82Ω

    The power expanded in a certain resistor is given by I²R. If the power expended in the resistor is 175W when the current is 5A, calculate the power in the resistor when,

    1. Both current and resistance are double.
    2. Current is half and resistance double
    3. When current is double and resistance half.
      Given that: P = 175W, I = 5A
      P = I²R, ⇒R = P/I²
      = 175/(5)² = 7Ω
      When both current and resistance are double, I = 2i; R = 2R
      Therefore, P = (2I)² × 2R = (2² × 5²) × (2 × 7)
      4 × 25 × 2 × 7 = 1400W
      Half current = ½; double resistance = 2R
      Therefore, P = (½I)² × 2R = (½² × 5²) × (2 × 7)
      0.25 × 25 × 2 × 7 = 87.5W
      Double current= 2i, half resistance = ½R
      Therefore, P = (2I)² × ½R = (2² × 5²) × (½ × 7)
      4 × 25 × ½ × 7 = 350W


    Accessories: A device other than current using equipment associated with such equipment or with the wiring of an installation.

    Appliances: An item of current using equipment other than an illuminaries or an independent motor.

    Cable coupler: A means enabling the connection of how cables are been connected. It consist of a connector and a plug.

    Circuit: An assemble of electrical equipment supplied from the same origin and protected against over current by the circuit.

    Circuit breaker: A mechanical switching device capable of making cutting and breaking current under specified abnormal circuit condition. For example the circuit breaker will trip-off if there’s short circuit.

    Circuit breaker

    Conductor: ( of a core or cable) the conducting portion consisting of a single wire or a group of wire in connect with each other for earthed concentric wiring. The metal in which electricity pass through in the cable sheet is called conductor.

    Connector: The part of a cable coupler or an appliance coupler which is provided with female contact and is intended to be attached to the flexible cable connected to supplying.

    Danger: Danger to health or danger to life or limb from shock, burn or injury from mechanical movement to a person due to electrical hazard.

    Safety in the electrical engineering workshop

    1. Instruments used in the workshop should be properly insulated for the available voltage to prevent electric shock.
    2. Workshop floor should be free from grease, oil and water to prevent electric workers from falling or stumbling and getting injured.
    3. First aid must be available and equipped in the workshop.
    4. Safety boots should be worn to prevent electrical hazard
    5. The passage way to the workshop should be free from obstruction to allow free movement of workers.
    6. Protective clothing such as rubber boots, gloves and eye googles shall be worn to prevent damage to insulation.
    7. Tools must be checked before being used on life circuit or equipment to ascertain that there is no damage to insulation.
    8. Machine lighting point and electrical circuit must be short down after work in the workshop.

    General safety

    1. Observe all safety equipment.
    2. Ensure that you withstand instruction before commencing work anything you don’t understand, make sure you ask your instructor.
    3. Keep gangway sand access to fire appliances clear.
    4. Learn how to give first aid treatment for electric shock.
    5. Know where the nearest fire exit and what to do when there is an outbreak of fire.
    6. Report all accident to supervisor
    7. Never run, it is safer to walk
    8. Never panic, it is safer to be calm
    9. Never misuse anything provided for securing health of safety. Do not do anything likely to cause harm/danger to you or any other personnel in the workshop.
    10. Never make false alarm in the workshop
    11. When there is fire outbreak use the fire extinguisher to put off fire.
    12. Stay away from restricted access zone in the workshop.
    13. Never disobey your supervisor based on instruction given to you.


    Electrical tools
    1. Use the correct tool for the job.
    2. Inspect boot regularly, don’t use them if defective.
    3. Chisel or punches with butted or mushroom head should be redressed before use.
    4. When using screw driver, never hold the job on your hand it should be placed on the table.
    5. Tools with sharp point should never be carried unsheathed.
    6. Hammer or mallet with loosed handles should be tightened before use.
    7. When using a drive ensure that the meter being drilled is clamped.
    8. Spanner with spray jaws should not be used. They usually slip as pressure is applied.
    9. Always use a soldering iron stand. Never hang the soldering iron on equipment or lay it on a bench.


    Electrical tools are equipment engaged to perform operation on electrical materials in order to achieve elected oriented results.
    There are two types of tools
    I . Hand tools
    II . Machine tool
    I . Hand tools: They are tools that can be used to carry out various works in the workshop through human effort. Examples are pliers, hammers, screwdrivers, tester, saw blades e.t.c
    II . Machine tools: They are irons that can be used to carry out works on machine in the workshop through human operation e.g reading machine, electrical drilling machine, stone grinders e.t.c

    Hand tools

    Examples of Hand tools and maintenance

    1. Pliers (nose, side, cutter): iron be used for twisting cable, cutting cable and peeling of cable. Maintenance and care = it should not be used for hammering things. After use, keep it inside the tool box.
    2. Hammer: This is used for hammering nails. Maintenance: After use keep it inside the tool box
    3. Screwdriver: This is used for loosening or tightening screw of various sizes, it can be flat, star or both and we’ll insulated. Maintenance: it must be well insulated, keep it into the tool box after use.
    4. File: This is used for smoothening metal. Maintenance: After use keep it inside the tool box
    5. Hacksaw: This is used for cutting of tubes, pipes and metal. It must be insulated. Maintenance: After use keep it inside the tool box
    6. Tap and die: This can be used to for cutting internal thickness. Maintenance: it should be well cleaned and return back to the box after use.
    7. Soldering iron: it is used to join two pieces of wire together. Maintenance: Soldering bit should be cleaned immediately after use.
    8. Vernier calliper: it is used to measure in the workshop. Maintenance: it should be returned back to its box after use.
    9. Micrometer screw gauge: This is used for measuring the diameter of a single wire in the workshop. Maintenance: it should be well coiled and return back to the box after use
    10. Blow lamp: This is used for melting the joint of lead or soldered joint between two wires.
    11. Tester: This is used to test or checked i